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Real Exchange Rate Changes and Trade Balance in Pakistan: A Revisit

  • Shahbaz, Muhammad
  • Jalil, Abdul
  • Islam, Faridul

This study uses quarterly data from 1980.1 to 2006.4 to explore the relationship between changes in real exchange rate and the trade balance indicators of Pakistan. Applying Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration we examine the existence of a possible long run relationship. We find the following: (a) a long run relationship between the series exists; and b) the coefficient of elasticity is negative and statistically significant which does not support for the J-relation. Given this, the policymakers should take conservative approach in using currency devaluation to cure the fundamental disequilibrium in the balance of payments. It is likely that such policy may not produce the desired outcome—i.e., the trade balance may not improve.

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File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/27631/1/MPRA_paper_27631.pdf
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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 27631.

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Date of creation: 20 Dec 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:27631
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  1. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen, 1998. "Do exchange rates follow a random walk process in Middle Eastern countries?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 339-344, March.
  2. Muhammad SHAHBAZ, 2009. "On Nominal and Real Devaluations Relation: An Econometric Evidence for Pakistan," International Journal of Applied Econometrics and Quantitative Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 9(1).
  3. Jacob Musila & John Newark, 2003. "Does Currency Devaluation Improve the Trade Balance in the Long Run? Evidence from Malawi," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 15(2‐3), pages 339-352.
  4. Tihomir Stucka, 2004. "The Effects of Exchange Rate Change on the Trade Balance in Croatia," IMF Working Papers 04/65, International Monetary Fund.
  5. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
  6. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Janardhanan Alse, 1994. "Short-Run versus Long-Run Effects of Devaluation: Error-Correction Modeling and Cointegration," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 453-464, Fall.
  7. Swarnjit Arora & Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Gour Goswami, 2003. "Bilateral J-curve between India and her trading partners," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(9), pages 1037-1041.
  8. Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," NBER Technical Working Papers 0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Kamal Upadhyaya & Dharmendra Dhakal, 1997. "Devaluation and the trade balance: estimating the long run effect," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(6), pages 343-345.
  10. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee, 2001. "Nominal and real effective exchange rates of middle eastern countries and their trade performance," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 103-111.
  11. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Artatrana Ratha, 2004. "The J-Curve: a literature review," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(13), pages 1377-1398.
  12. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Alse, Janardhanan, 1995. "Is there any long-run relation between the terms of trade and trade balance?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 199-205, April.
  13. Sajjad Akhtar & Fauzia Malik, 2000. "Pakistan’s Trade Performance vis-à-vis Its Major Trading Partners," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(1), pages 37-50.
  14. Rose, Andrew K. & Yellen, Janet L., 1989. "Is there a J-curve?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 53-68, July.
  15. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Jehanzeb Cheema, 2009. "Short-Run And Long-Run Effects Of Currency Depreciation On The Bilateral Trade Balance Between Pakistan And Her Major Trading Partners," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 34(1), pages 19-41, June.
  16. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen, 1985. "Devaluation and the J-Curve: Some Evidence from LDCs," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 500-504, August.
  17. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2006. "Examining the relationship between trade balance and exchange rate: the case of China's trade with the USA," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(8), pages 507-510.
  18. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
  19. Kanta Marwah & Lawrence R. Klein, 1996. "Estimation of J-Curves: United States and Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(3), pages 523-39, August.
  20. DeJong, David N, et al, 1992. "Integration versus Trend Stationarity in Time Series," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 423-33, March.
  21. M. Aynul Hasan & Ashfaque H. Khan, 1994. "Impact of Devaluation on Pakistan's External Trade: An Econometric Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 1205-1215.
  22. Halicioglu, Ferda, 2008. "The bilateral J-curve: Turkey versus her 13 trading partners," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 236-243, June.
  23. Sadullah Celik & Huseyin Kaya, 2010. "Real exchange rates and bilateral trade dynamics of Turkey: panel cointegration approach," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(8), pages 791-795.
  24. Felmingham, Bruce S, 1988. "Where Is the Australian J-Curve?," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 43-56, January.
  25. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
  26. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:5:y:2003:i:18:p:1-13 is not listed on IDEAS
  27. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Malixi, Margaret, 1992. "More evidence on the J curve from LDCs," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 641-653, October.
  28. Elif Akbostanci, 2002. "Dynamics of the trade balance: The Turkish J-curve," ERC Working Papers 0205, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised May 2002.
  29. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen, 1991. "Is there a long-run relation between the trade balance and the real effective exchange rate of LDCs?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 403-407, August.
  30. Jarita Duasa, 2007. "Determinants of Malaysian Trade Balance: An ARDL Bound Testing Approach," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 89-102.
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