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Trade implications of the Euro in EMU countries: a panel gravity analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Mohd Hussain Kunroo

    (The Northcap University
    Jamia Millia Islamia University)

  • Irfan Ahmad Sofi

    (Indian Institute of Technology)

  • Naushad Ali Azad

    (Jamia Millia Islamia University)

Abstract

In this paper, we study the intra-EMU and intra-Eurozone trade effects of the euro adoption on 29 European Economic and Monetary Union countries (including 17 Eurozone economies and Iceland) from the period 1994 through 2011. We employ a generalized gravity model that controls for an extended set of trade theory and policy variables. The gravity model is estimated using the robust panel data techniques that includes times effects, besides country-specific effects. The various econometric specifications of the gravity equation, on the whole dataset of 29 economies, yield positive and significant impact (to be around 14 %) of the euro currency adoption on bilateral trade flows. Next, euro effect on bilateral trade and exports on a smaller dataset is estimated. The estimated results suggest that bilateral trade and exports increase by 20.81 and 18.57 %, respectively, when both the countries belong to the Eurozone. This effect is larger than the one obtained when only one of the two trading partners uses the euro as its currency. In addition, the validity of the assumptions of Heckscher–Ohlin (H–O) theory are checked for the countries under study. The estimated results reject the H–O theory in favor of Modern Trade theories. However, the low value of the coefficient on respective variable suggests that, over the period, the type of trade among these countries has transited from inter-industry trade to horizontal intra-industry trade. This suggests that these developed European economies are on the path of economic convergence via intra-industry trade.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohd Hussain Kunroo & Irfan Ahmad Sofi & Naushad Ali Azad, 2016. "Trade implications of the Euro in EMU countries: a panel gravity analysis," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 43(2), pages 391-413, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:empiri:v:43:y:2016:i:2:d:10.1007_s10663-016-9334-6
    DOI: 10.1007/s10663-016-9334-6
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    3. Campbell, Douglas L. & Chentsov, Aleksandr, 2017. "Breaking Badly: The Currency Union Effect on Trade," MPRA Paper 79973, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    5. Ioannatos, Petros E., 2021. "Systematic growth asymmetry in the Eurozone? Evidence from a natural experiment," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 24(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bilateral trade; Euro; Gravity model; Fixed effects estimator; Random effects estimator; Economic and monetary union;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

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