IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

A Survey of the Assessments of the Effectiveness of Preferential Trade Agreements using Gravity Models

  • Cardamone, Paola

    ()

    (Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica (Department of Economics and Statistics) Università della Calabria)

This paper reviews the empirical literature using a gravity model to assess the impact on trade of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) and provides a critical analysis of the choices made to carry out the estimations. With respect to the effectiveness of PTAs, the main result that emerges from the review is that PTAs tend to foster trade between the countries involved. However, two empirical issues appear relevant. First, the use of dummy variables to proxy PTAs does not adequately describe the preferences granted and can be misleading. Indeed, the use of dummies does not allow to discern among the different preferential trade policy instruments used as well as to measure the level of the trade preferences granted. As a result, dummies do not allow to capture the specific effect of the preferences on bilateral trade. Second, the econometric methods used do not always address in a satisfactory way the potential sources of bias in the estimations, such as unobserved heterogeneity, endogeneity of some regressors and zero-trade flows. Thus, with respect to the empirical issues, the main conclusion which can be drawn from this survey is that the proposed estimates so far of the effects of PTAs using gravity models tend to be biased and, as a result, are not fully reliable.

To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

Article provided by Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova in its journal Economia Internazionale / International Economics.

Volume (Year): 60 (2007)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 421-473

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:ris:ecoint:0047
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Via Garibaldi 4, 16124 Genova, Italy

Phone: +39 010 27041
Fax: +39 010 2704222
Web page: http://www.iei1946.it/it/index.php
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Freund, Caroline L. & Weinhold, Diana, 2004. "The effect of the Internet on international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 171-189, January.
  2. AUGIER Patricia & GAZIOREK Michael & LAITONG Charles, 2004. "The Impact of Rules of Origin On Trade Flows," International Trade 0404001, EconWPA.
  3. Masahiro Endoh, 1999. "Trade creation and trade diversion in the EEC, the LAFTA and the CMEA: 1960-1994," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(2), pages 207-216.
  4. Cipollina, Maria & Salvatici, Luca, 2006. "Reciprocal Trade Agreements in Gravity Models: A Meta-analysis," Working Papers 18877, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
  5. Engel, Charles M & Rose, Andrew K, 2001. "Currency Unions and International Integration," CEPR Discussion Papers 2659, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Hamid Faruqee, 2004. "Measuring the Trade Effects of EMU," IMF Working Papers 04/154, International Monetary Fund.
  7. Jong-Wha Lee & Innwon Park & Kwanho Shin, 2008. "Proliferating Regional Trade Arrangements: Why and Whither?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(12), pages 1525-1557, December.
  8. de Sousa, J. & Mayer, T. & Zignago, S., 2011. "Market access in global and regional trade," Working papers 358, Banque de France.
  9. Andrew K. Rose, 2004. "Do We Really Know That the WTO Increases Trade?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 98-114, March.
  10. Emla Fitzsimons & Vincent Hogan & J. Peter Neary, 1999. "Explaining the Volume of North-South Trade in Ireland - A Gravity Model Approach," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 30(4), pages 381-401.
  11. Howard J. Wall, 2003. "NAFTA and the geography of North American trade," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 13-26.
  12. Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur, 2005. "The Determinants of Bangladesh's Trade: Evidence from the Generalized Gravity Model," Working Papers 3, University of Sydney, School of Economics.
  13. I-Hui Cheng & Howard J. Wall, 2004. "Controlling for heterogeneity in gravity models of trade and integration," Working Papers 1999-010, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  14. Jakab, Zoltan M. & Kovacs, Mihaly A. & Oszlay, Andras, 2001. "How Far Has Trade Integration Advanced?: An Analysis of the Actual and Potential Trade of Three Central and Eastern European Countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 276-292, June.
  15. Carrillo-Tudela, Carlos & Li, Carmen A, 2002. "Trade Blocks and the Gravity Model: Evidence from Latin American Countries," Economics Discussion Papers 2731, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
  16. Luca De Benedictis & Roberta De Santis & Claudio Vicarelli, 2005. "Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the “enlarged” European Union," ISAE Working Papers 52, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
  17. Alan Deardorff, 1998. "Determinants of Bilateral Trade: Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World?," NBER Chapters, in: The Regionalization of the World Economy, pages 7-32 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Giorgio Fazio & Ronald Mac Donald & Jacques Melitz, 2005. "Trade Costs, Trade Balances and Current Accounts : An Application of Gravity to Multilateral Trade," Working Papers 2005-12, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  19. Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, Jose Maria & Martí-Selva, Maria-Luis, 2006. "A Gravity Approach to Assess the Effects of Association Agreements on Euromediterranean Trade of Fruits and Vegetables," MPRA Paper 4124, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Gallezot, Jacques, 2005. "Data Base on EU Preferential Trade TRADEPREF," Working Papers 18852, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
  21. Rose, Andrew K, 2002. "One Reason Countries Pay Their Debts: Renegotiation and International Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 3157, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  22. Carolina Lennon, 2008. "Trade in services and trade in goods: differences and complementarities," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586223, HAL.
  23. Hausman, Jerry A, 1978. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
  24. J. A. Hausman & W. E. Taylor, 1980. "Panel Data and Unobservable Individual Effects," Working papers 255, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  25. Antonis Adam & James McHugh & Theodora Kosma, 2003. "Trade Liberalization Strategies; What Could South Eastern Europe Learn From Cefta and Bfta?," IMF Working Papers 03/239, International Monetary Fund.
  26. Jacques Melitz, 2003. "Language and Foreign Trade," Working Papers 2003-26, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  27. Rauch, James E., 1999. "Networks versus markets in international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 7-35, June.
  28. Peter Egger, 2005. "Alternative Techniques for Estimation of Cross-Section Gravity Models," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(5), pages 881-891, November.
  29. Subramanian, Arvind & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2005. "The WTO Promotes Trade, Strongly But Unevenly," CEPR Discussion Papers 5122, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  30. James E. Rauch & Vitor Trindade, 1999. "Ethnic Chinese Networks in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 7189, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
  32. Heckman, James J, 1978. "Dummy Endogenous Variables in a Simultaneous Equation System," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(4), pages 931-59, July.
  33. De Benedictis Luca & Vicarelli Claudio, 2005. "Trade Potentials in Gravity Panel Data Models," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-33, September.
  34. Sampath Jayasinghe & Rakhal Sarker, 2004. "Effects of Regional Trade Agreements on Trade in Agrifood Products: Evidence from Gravity Modeling Using Disaggregated Data," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 04-wp374, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  35. Alberto Amurgo Pacheco, 2006. "Preferential Trade Liberalization and the Range of Exported Products: The Case of the Euro-Mediterranean FTA," IHEID Working Papers 18-2006, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
  36. Hans C. Blomqvist, 2004. "Explaining Trade Flows of Singapore," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 25-43, 03.
  37. Frankel, Jeffrey & Stein, Ernesto & Wei, Shang-jin, 1995. "Trading blocs and the Americas: The natural, the unnatural, and the super-natural," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 61-95, June.
  38. Michael R. Pakko & Howard J. Wall, 2001. "Reconsidering the trade-creating effects of a currency union," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 37-46.
  39. Bchir, Mohamed Hedi & Jean, Sebastien & Laborde, David, 2005. "Binding Overhang and Tariff-Cutting Formulas," Working Papers 18873, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
  40. Limao, Nuno & Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Infrastructure, geographical disadvantage, and transport costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2257, The World Bank.
  41. Marianne Baxter & Michael A. Kouparitsas, 2005. "What determines bilateral trade flows?," Working Paper Series WP-05-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  42. Kyoji Fukao & Toshihiro Okubo & Robert M. Stern, 2002. "An Econometric Analysis of Trade Diversion under NAFTA," Discussion papers 02011, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  43. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-81, August.
  44. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2000. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 485, Boston College Department of Economics.
  45. Rojas, Gina E. Acosta & Calfat, Germán & Flôres Junior, Renato Galvão, 2005. "Trade and infrastructure: evidences from the Andean Community," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 580, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
  46. Andrew Rose, 2005. "Does the WTO Make Trade More Stable?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 7-22, January.
  47. Egger, Peter, 2000. "A note on the proper econometric specification of the gravity equation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 25-31, January.
  48. Soloaga, Isidro & Winters, L. Alan, 1999. "Regionalism in the Nineties: What Effect on Trade?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2183, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  49. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
  50. Hassan, M. Kabir, 2001. "Is SAARC a viable economic block? evidence from gravity model," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 263-290.
  51. Silvana Tenreyro & Robert J. Barro, 2003. "Economic Effects of Currency Unions," NBER Working Papers 9435, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  52. Maurice J. G. Bun & Franc J. G. M. Klaassen, 2007. "The Euro Effect on Trade is not as Large as Commonly Thought," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(4), pages 473-496, 08.
  53. Andrew K. Rose, 2000. "One money, one market: the effect of common currencies on trade," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 7-46, 04.
  54. repec:esx:essedp:542 is not listed on IDEAS
  55. Melitz, Jacques, 2007. "North, South and distance in the gravity model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 971-991, May.
  56. Jarko Fidrmuc & Jan Fidrmuc, 2001. "Disintegration and Trade," LICOS Discussion Papers 9901, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  57. Robert C. Feenstra & James R. Markusen & Andrew K. Rose, 2001. "Using the gravity equation to differentiate among alternative theories of trade," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(2), pages 430-447, May.
  58. Klein, Michael W., 2005. "Dollarization and trade," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 935-943, October.
  59. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum, 1997. "Technology and Bilateral Trade," NBER Working Papers 6253, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  60. Vincent (Vincent Peter) Hogan & Emla Fitzsimons & J. Peter Neary, 1999. "Explaining the volume of north south trade : a gravity model approach," Open Access publications 10197/48, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  61. Antoine Bouët & Yvan Decreux & Lionel Fontagné & Sébastien Jean & David Laborde, 2004. "A Consistent, Ad-Valorem Equivalent Measure of Applied Protection Across the World: The MAcMap-HS6 Database," Working Papers 2004-22, CEPII research center.
  62. Jong-Wha Lee & Innwon Park, 2005. "Free Trade Areas in East Asia: Discriminatory or Non-discriminatory?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(1), pages 21-48, 01.
  63. Emlinger, Charlotte & Lozza, Emmanuelle Chevassus & Jacquet, Florence, 2006. "EU market access for Mediterranean fruit and vegetables: A gravity model assessment," 98th Seminar, June 29-July 2, 2006, Chania, Crete, Greece 10098, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  64. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Rose, Andrew K, 2000. "An Estimate of the Effect of Currency Unions on Trade and Output," CEPR Discussion Papers 2631, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  65. Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2007. "Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," NBER Working Papers 12927, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  66. Alejandro Micco & Ernesto H. Stein & Guillermo Luis Ordoñez, 2003. "The Currency Union Effect on Trade: Early Evidence from EMU," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6511, Inter-American Development Bank.
  67. Chan-Hyun Sohn, 2005. "Does The Gravity Model Explain South Korea'S Trade Flows?," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 56(4), pages 417-430.
  68. Sapir, Andre, 2001. "Domino effects in Western European regional trade, 1960-1992," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 377-388, June.
  69. Clarete, Ramon & Edmonds, Christopher & Wallack, Jessica Seddon, 2003. "Asian regionalism and its effects on trade in the 1980s and 1990s," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 91-129, February.
  70. Sampath Jayasinghe & Rakhal Sarker, 2004. "Effects of Regional Trade Agreements on Trade in Agrifood Products: Evidence from Gravity Modeling Using Disaggregated Data," Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) Publications 04-wp374, Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) at Iowa State University.
  71. Christos Papazoglou & Eric J. Pentecost & Helena Marques, 2006. "A Gravity Model Forecast of the Potential Trade Effects of EU Enlargement: Lessons from 2004 and Path-dependency in Integration," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(8), pages 1077-1089, 08.
  72. H. Mikael Sandberg & James Seale & Timothy Taylor, 2006. "History, regionalism, and CARICOM trade: A gravity model analysis," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(5), pages 795-811.
  73. Nouve, Kofi & Staatz, John M., 2003. "Has Agoa Increased Agricultural Exports From Sub-Saharan Africa To The United States?," Staff Papers 11573, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  74. Colin Kirkpatrick & Matsuo Watanabe, 2005. "Regional Trade In Sub-Saharan Africa: An Analysis Of East African Trade Cooperation, 1970-2001," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 73(2), pages 141-164, 03.
  75. Anderson, James E, 1979. "A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 106-16, March.
  76. Bayoumi, Tamim & Eichengreen, Barry, 1995. "Is Regionalism Simply a Diversion? Evidence from the Evolution of the EC and EFTA," CEPR Discussion Papers 1294, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  77. Lucian Cernat, 2001. "ASSESSING REGIONAL TRADE ARRANGEMENTS: ARE SOUTH–SOUTH RTAs MORE TRADE DIVERTING?," International Trade 0109001, EconWPA.
  78. Melitz, Jacques, 2001. "Geography, Trade and Currency Union," CEPR Discussion Papers 2987, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  79. Greenaway, David & Milner, Chris, 2002. "Regionalism and Gravity," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(5), pages 574-85, December.
  80. Márquez-Ramos Laura & Martínez-Zarzoso Inmaculada & Suárez-Burguet Celestino, 2007. "The Role of Distance in Gravity Regressions: Is There Really a Missing Globalisation Puzzle?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 1-25, January.
  81. Andrew K. Rose & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "National Money as a Barrier to International Trade: The Real Case for Currency Union," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 386-390, May.
  82. Guillaume Gaulier & Sébastien Jean & Deniz Ünal-Kesenci, 2004. "Regionalism and the Regionalisation of International Trade," Working Papers 2004-16, CEPII research center.
  83. Fukunari Kimura & Hyun-Hoon Lee, 2006. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade in Services," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 142(1), pages 92-121, April.
  84. Skripnitchenko, Anatoliy & Beladi, Hamid & Koo, Won W., 2004. "Preferential Trade Arrangements: Impacts On Agricultural Trade And Income," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20260, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  85. Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso, 2003. "Gravity model: An application to trade between regional blocs," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 31(2), pages 174-187, June.
  86. Keith Walsh, 2006. "Trade in Services: Does Gravity Hold? A Gravity Model Approach to Estimating Barriers to Services Trade," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp183, IIIS.
  87. Alejandro Micco & Ernesto Stein & Guillermo OrdoÒez, 2003. "The currency union effect on trade: early evidence from EMU," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 18(37), pages 315-356, October.
  88. Won W. Koo & P. Lynn Kennedy & Anatoliy Skripnitchenko, 2006. "Regional Preferential Trade Agreements: Trade Creation and Diversion Effects ," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 408-415.
  89. Sanso, Marcos & Cuairan, Rogelio & Sanz, Fernando, 1993. "Bilateral Trade Flows, the Gravity Equation, and Functional Form," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(2), pages 266-75, May.
  90. Brada, Josef C & Mendez, Jose A, 1985. "Economic Integration among Developed, Developing and Centrally Planned Economies: A Comparative Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(4), pages 549-56, November.
  91. Hilbun, Brian M. & Kennedy, P. Lynn & Dufour, Elizabeth Anne, 2006. "A Determination of the Trade Creation and Diversion Effects of Regional Trade Agreements in the Western Hemisphere," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21138, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  92. Agostino, Maria Rosaria & Aiello, Francesco & Cardamone, Paola, 2007. "Analyzing the Impact of Trade Preferences in Gravity Models. Does Aggregation Matter?," Working Papers 7294, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
  93. Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso & Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann D. & Nicholas Horsewood, 2006. "Effects of Regional Trade Agreements Using a Static and Dynamic Gravity Equation," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 149, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  94. Shunsuke Managi & Hironori Kawajiri & Tetsuya Tsurumi, 2005. "Regional economic integration and trade: an empirical evaluation of NAFTA and EU," International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(1), pages 1-23.
  95. Ghosh, Sucharita & Yamarik, Steven, 2004. "Are regional trading arrangements trade creating?: An application of extreme bounds analysis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 369-395, July.
  96. Baier, Scott L. & Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., 2007. "Do free trade agreements actually increase members' international trade?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 72-95, March.
  97. Nguyen Trung Kien & Yoshizo Hashimoto, 2005. "Economic Analysis Of Asean Free Trade Area; By A Country Panel Data," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 05-12, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
  98. Cipollina, Maria & Salvatici, Luca, 2007. "EU and developing countries: an analysis of preferential margins on agricultural trade flows," Working Papers 7219, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
  99. repec:fth:michin:382 is not listed on IDEAS
  100. Fritz Breuss & Peter Egger, 1999. "How Reliable Are Estimations of East-West Trade Potentials Based on Cross-Section Gravity Analyses?," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 26(2), pages 81-94, June.
  101. Anne O. Krueger, 1999. "Trade Creation and Trade Diversion Under NAFTA," NBER Working Papers 7429, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  102. Thom, Rodney & Walsh, Brendan, 2002. "The effect of a currency union on trade: Lessons from the Irish experience," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(6), pages 1111-1123, June.
  103. Yutaka Kurihara, 2003. "Apec: International Trade And Output," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 207-217, October.
  104. Ayako Saiki, 2005. "Asymmetric Effect of Currency Union for Developing Countries," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 227-247, July.
  105. Aitken, Norman D, 1973. "The Effect of the EEC and EFTA on European Trade: A Temporal Cross-Section Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(5), pages 881-92, December.
  106. Fratianni, Michele & Kang, Heejoon, 2006. "Heterogeneous distance-elasticities in trade gravity models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 68-71, January.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ris:ecoint:0047. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Angela Procopio)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.