IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Correlation of financial markets in times of crisis

  • Sandoval, Leonidas
  • Franca, Italo De Paula
Registered author(s):

    Using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of correlations matrices of some of the main financial market indices in the world, we show that high volatility of markets is directly linked with strong correlations between them. This means that markets tend to behave as one during great crashes. In order to do so, we investigate financial market crises that occurred in the years 1987 (Black Monday), 1998 (Russian crisis), 2001 (Burst of the dot-com bubble and September 11), and 2008 (Subprime Mortgage Crisis), which mark some of the largest downturns of financial markets in the last three decades.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037843711100570X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only. Journal offers the option of making the article available online on Science direct for a fee of $3,000

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.

    Volume (Year): 391 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 187-208

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:391:y:2012:i:1:p:187-208
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/physica-a-statistical-mechpplications/

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. M. Tumminello & F. Lillo & R. N. Mantegna, 2007. "Shrinkage and spectral filtering of correlation matrices: a comparison via the Kullback-Leibler distance," Papers 0710.0576, arXiv.org.
    2. Kyu-Min Lee & Jae-Suk Yang & Gunn Kim & Jaesung Lee & Kwang-Il Goh & In-mook Kim, 2010. "Impact of the topology of global macroeconomic network on the spreading of economic crises," Papers 1011.4336, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2011.
    3. Chiang, Thomas C. & Jeon, Bang Nam & Li, Huimin, 2007. "Dynamic correlation analysis of financial contagion: Evidence from Asian markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1206-1228, November.
    4. Sieczka, Paweł & Hołyst, Janusz A., 2009. "Correlations in commodity markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(8), pages 1621-1630.
    5. R. Rak & J. Kwapien & S. Drozdz & P. Oswiecimka, 2008. "Cross-correlations in Warsaw Stock Exchange," Papers 0803.0057, arXiv.org.
    6. R. Rak & S. Drozdz & J. Kwapien & P. Oswiecimka, 2006. "Correlation matrix decomposition of WIG20 intraday fluctuations," Papers physics/0606041, arXiv.org, revised Nov 2006.
    7. Hartmann, P. & Straetmans, S. & De Vries, C.G., 2001. "Asset Market Linkages in Crisis Periods," Papers 71, Quebec a Montreal - Recherche en gestion.
    8. Pafka, Szilárd & Kondor, Imre, 2003. "Noisy covariance matrices and portfolio optimization II," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 319(C), pages 487-494.
    9. Fabrizio Lillo & Giovanni Bonanno & Rosario N. Mantegna, 2001. "Variety of Stock Returns in Normal and Extreme Market Days: The August 1998 Crisis," Papers cond-mat/0104362, arXiv.org.
    10. Baur, Dirk G. & Fry, Renée A., 2009. "Multivariate contagion and interdependence," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 353-366, September.
    11. Conlon, T. & Ruskin, H.J. & Crane, M., 2009. "Cross-correlation dynamics in financial time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(5), pages 705-714.
    12. R. Mantegna, 1999. "Hierarchical structure in financial markets," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 193-197, September.
    13. Philipp Weber & Bernd Rosenow, 2006. "Large stock price changes: volume or liquidity?," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(1), pages 7-14.
    14. Martins, André C.R., 2007. "Random, but not so much a parameterization for the returns and correlation matrix of financial time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 383(2), pages 527-532.
    15. Bonanno, Giovanni & Lillo, Fabrizio & Mantegna, Rosario N., 2001. "Levels of complexity in financial markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 299(1), pages 16-27.
    16. Raj Kumar Pan & Sitabhra Sinha, 2007. "Collective behavior of stock price movements in an emerging market," Papers 0704.0773, arXiv.org, revised Nov 2007.
    17. Jaroslaw Kwapien & Sylwia Gworek & Stanislaw Drozdz, 2009. "Structure and evolution of the foreign exchange networks," Papers 0901.4793, arXiv.org.
    18. Coelho, Ricardo & Gilmore, Claire G. & Lucey, Brian & Richmond, Peter & Hutzler, Stefan, 2007. "The evolution of interdependence in world equity markets—Evidence from minimum spanning trees," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 376(C), pages 455-466.
    19. B. Podobnik & D. F. Fu & H. E. Stanley & P. Ch. Ivanov, 2007. "Power-law autocorrelated stochastic processes with long-range cross-correlations," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 56(1), pages 47-52, 03.
    20. Taimur Baig & Ilan Goldfajn, 1999. "Financial Market Contagion in the Asian Crisis," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 46(2), pages 3.
    21. Onnela, J.-P. & Chakraborti, A. & Kaski, K. & Kertész, J., 2003. "Dynamic asset trees and Black Monday," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 324(1), pages 247-252.
    22. Corsetti, Giancarlo & Pericoli, Marcello & Sbracia, Massimo, 2002. "Some Contagion, Some Interdependence: More Pitfalls in Tests of Financial Contagion," CEPR Discussion Papers 3310, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    23. Parameswaran Gopikrishnan & Vasiliki Plerou & Luis A. Nunes Amaral & Martin Meyer & H. Eugene Stanley, 1999. "Scaling of the distribution of fluctuations of financial market indices," Papers cond-mat/9905305, arXiv.org.
    24. Pawe{\l} Sieczka & Janusz A. Ho{\l}yst, 2008. "Correlations in commodity markets," Papers 0803.3884, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2009.
    25. A. Chakraborti & M. Patriarca & M. S. Santhanam, 2007. "Financial time-series analysis: A brief overview," Papers 0704.1738, arXiv.org.
    26. Pierre-Alain Reigneron & Romain Allez & Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, 2010. "Principal Regression Analysis and the index leverage effect," Papers 1011.5810, arXiv.org, revised Feb 2011.
    27. Bartram, Sohnke M. & Wang, Yaw-Huei, 2005. "Another look at the relationship between cross-market correlation and volatility," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 75-88, June.
    28. Szilard Pafka & Imre Kondor, 2003. "Estimated Correlation Matrices and Portfolio Optimization," Papers cond-mat/0305475, arXiv.org.
    29. Christoly Biely & Stefan Thurner, 2008. "Random matrix ensembles of time-lagged correlation matrices: derivation of eigenvalue spectra and analysis of financial time-series," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(7), pages 705-722.
    30. Sitabhra Sinha & Raj Kumar Pan, 2007. "Uncovering the Internal Structure of the Indian Financial Market: Cross-correlation behavior in the NSE," Papers 0704.2115, arXiv.org.
    31. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey, 1994. "Time-Varying World Market Integration," NBER Working Papers 4843, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    32. François Longin, 2001. "Extreme Correlation of International Equity Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 649-676, 04.
    33. Eom, Cheoljun & Oh, Gabjin & Jung, Woo-Sung & Jeong, Hawoong & Kim, Seunghwan, 2009. "Topological properties of stock networks based on minimal spanning tree and random matrix theory in financial time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(6), pages 900-906.
    34. Michael C. M\"unnix & Rudi Sch\"afer & Thomas Guhr, 2009. "Compensating asynchrony effects in the calculation of financial correlations," Papers 0910.2909, arXiv.org, revised Jul 2010.
    35. J.-P. Bouchaud & L. Laloux & M. A. Miceli & M. Potters, 2007. "Large dimension forecasting models and random singular value spectra," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 201-207, 01.
    36. Giorgio Fagiolo, 2009. "The International-Trade Network: Gravity Equations and Topological Properties," Papers 0908.2086, arXiv.org.
    37. Baur, Dirk & Schulze, Niels, 2005. "Coexceedances in financial markets--a quantile regression analysis of contagion," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-43, April.
    38. D. Garlaschelli & T. Di Matteo & T. Aste & G. Caldarelli & M. I. Loffredo, 2007. "Interplay between topology and dynamics in the World Trade Web," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 57(2), pages 159-164, 05.
    39. Sergei Maslov, 2001. "Measures of globalization based on cross-correlations of world financial indices," Papers cond-mat/0103397, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2001.
    40. Reigneron, Pierre-Alain & Allez, Romain & Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe, 2011. "Principal regression analysis and the index leverage effect," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(17), pages 3026-3035.
    41. Ang, Andrew & Chen, Joseph, 2002. "Asymmetric correlations of equity portfolios," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 443-494, March.
    42. Plerou, V & Gopikrishnan, P & Rosenow, B & Amaral, L.A.N & Stanley, H.E, 2000. "A random matrix theory approach to financial cross-correlations," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 287(3), pages 374-382.
    43. Wilcox, Diane & Gebbie, Tim, 2007. "An analysis of cross-correlations in an emerging market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 375(2), pages 584-598.
    44. Duan Wang & Boris Podobnik & Davor Horvati\'c & H. Eugene Stanley, 2011. "Quantifying and Modeling Long-Range Cross-Correlations in Multiple Time Series with Applications to World Stock Indices," Papers 1102.2240, arXiv.org.
    45. D. Garlaschelli & T. Di Matteo & T. Aste & G. Caldarelli & M. I. Loffredo, 2007. "Interplay between topology and dynamics in the World Trade Web," Papers physics/0701030, arXiv.org.
    46. Boris Podobnik & Plamen Ch. Ivanov & Youngki Lee & Alessandro Chessa & H. Eugene Stanley, 1999. "Systems with Correlations in the Variance: Generating Power-Law Tails in Probability Distributions," Papers cond-mat/9910433, arXiv.org, revised May 2000.
    47. Jean-Philippe Bouchaud & J. Doyne Farmer & Fabrizio Lillo, 2008. "How markets slowly digest changes in supply and demand," Papers 0809.0822, arXiv.org.
    48. Vasiliki Plerou & Parameswaran Gopikrishnan & Bernd Rosenow & Luis A. Nunes Amaral & H. Eugene Stanley, 1999. "Universal and non-universal properties of cross-correlations in financial time series," Papers cond-mat/9902283, arXiv.org.
    49. Keskin, Mustafa & Deviren, Bayram & Kocakaplan, Yusuf, 2011. "Topology of the correlation networks among major currencies using hierarchical structure methods," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(4), pages 719-730.
    50. De Santis, Giorgio & Gerard, Bruno, 1997. " International Asset Pricing and Portfolio Diversification with Time-Varying Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 1881-1912, December.
    51. J.-P. Onnela & K. Kaski & J. Kertész, 2004. "Clustering and information in correlation based financial networks," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 38(2), pages 353-362, 03.
    52. Reigneron, Pierre-Alain & Allez, Romain & Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe, 2011. "Principal regression analysis and the index leverage effect," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/10911, Paris Dauphine University.
    53. J. Doyne Farmer & Laszlo Gillemot & Fabrizio Lillo & Szabolcs Mike & Anindya Sen, 2003. "What really causes large price changes?," Papers cond-mat/0312703, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2004.
    54. Sergio Arianos & Anna Carbone, 2008. "Cross-correlation of long-range correlated series," Papers 0804.2064, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2009.
    55. Jarosław Kwapień & Sylwia Gworek & Stanisław Drożdż & Andrzej Górski, 2009. "Analysis of a network structure of the foreign currency exchange market," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 55-72, June.
    56. M. Tumminello & T. Di Matteo & T. Aste & R. N. Mantegna, 2006. "Correlation based networks of equity returns sampled at different time horizons," Papers physics/0605251, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2007.
    57. Ball, Clifford A. & Torous, Walter N., 2000. "Stochastic Correlation Across International Stock Markets," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt6vn9q79w, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
    58. P. Cizeau & M. Potters & J-P. Bouchaud, 2001. "Correlation structure of extreme stock returns," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 217-222.
    59. Sharifi, S. & Crane, M. & Shamaie, A. & Ruskin, H., 2004. "Random matrix theory for portfolio optimization: a stability approach," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 335(3), pages 629-643.
    60. Podobnik, Boris & Horvatic, Davor & Lam Ng, Alfonso & Eugene Stanley, H. & Ivanov, Plamen Ch., 2008. "Modeling long-range cross-correlations in two-component ARFIMA and FIARCH processes," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(15), pages 3954-3959.
    61. Salvatore Miccich\`e & Giovanni Bonanno & Fabrizio Lillo & Rosario N. Mantegna, 2002. "Degree stability of a minimum spanning tree of price return and volatility," Papers cond-mat/0212338, arXiv.org.
    62. Ausloos, M. & Lambiotte, R., 2007. "Clusters or networks of economies? A macroeconomy study through Gross Domestic Product," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 382(1), pages 16-21.
    63. G. Bonanno & G. Caldarelli & F. Lillo & S. Micciché & N. Vandewalle & R. Mantegna, 2004. "Networks of equities in financial markets," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 38(2), pages 363-371, 03.
    64. Ivanov, Plamen Ch. & Podobnik, Boris & Lee, Youngki & Stanley, H.Eugene, 2001. "Truncated Lévy process with scale-invariant behavior," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 299(1), pages 154-160.
    65. Brida, Juan Gabriel & Risso, Wiston Adrián, 2008. "Multidimensional minimal spanning tree: The Dow Jones case," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(21), pages 5205-5210.
    66. Ester Pantaleo & Michele Tumminello & Fabrizio Lillo & Rosario N. Mantegna, 2010. "When do improved covariance matrix estimators enhance portfolio optimization? An empirical comparative study of nine estimators," Papers 1004.4272, arXiv.org.
    67. Hyde, Stuart J & Bredin, Don P & Nguyen, Nghia, 2007. "Correlation dynamics between Asia-Pacific, EU and US stock returns," MPRA Paper 9681, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    68. Maslov, Sergei, 2001. "Measures of globalization based on cross-correlations of world financial indices," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 301(1), pages 397-406.
    69. Ball, Clifford A. & Torous, Walter N., 2000. "Stochastic correlation across international stock markets," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3-4), pages 373-388, November.
    70. G. Oh & C. Eom & F. Wang & W.-S. Jung & H. E. Stanley & S. Kim, 2011. "Statistical properties of cross-correlation in the Korean stock market," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 79(1), pages 55-60, January.
    71. Münnix, Michael C. & Schäfer, Rudi & Guhr, Thomas, 2010. "Compensating asynchrony effects in the calculation of financial correlations," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(4), pages 767-779.
    72. Martins, André C.R., 2007. "Non-stationary correlation matrices and noise," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 379(2), pages 552-558.
    73. Jiankui He & Michael W. Deem, 2010. "Structure and Response in the World Trade Network," Papers 1010.0410, arXiv.org.
    74. Flavin, Thomas J & Hurley, Margaret J & Rousseau, Fabrice, 2002. "Explaining Stock Market Correlation: A Gravity Model Approach," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 70(0), pages 87-106, Supplemen.
    75. Andrew Ang & Geert Bekaert, 2002. "International Asset Allocation With Regime Shifts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1137-1187.
    76. Tumminello, Michele & Lillo, Fabrizio & Mantegna, Rosario N., 2010. "Correlation, hierarchies, and networks in financial markets," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 40-58, July.
    77. Jaroslaw Kwapien & Sylwia Gworek & Stanislaw Drozdz & Andrzej Gorski, 2009. "Analysis of a network structure of the foreign currency exchange market," Papers 0906.0480, arXiv.org.
    78. Daniel J. Fenn & Mason A. Porter & Stacy Williams & Mark McDonald & Neil F. Johnson & Nick S. Jones, 2010. "Temporal Evolution of Financial Market Correlations," Papers 1011.3225, arXiv.org, revised May 2011.
    79. Paul Ormerod, 2008. "Random matrix theory and the evolution of business cycle synchronisation 1886-2006," Papers 0807.1771, arXiv.org.
    80. Giovanni Bonanno & Nicolas Vandewalle & Rosario N. Mantegna, 2000. "Taxonomy of Stock Market Indices," Papers cond-mat/0001268, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2000.
    81. Michael, Fredrick & Johnson, M.D., 2003. "Financial market dynamics," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 320(C), pages 525-534.
    82. G. Bonanno & F. Lillo & R. N. Mantegna, 2001. "High-frequency cross-correlation in a set of stocks," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 96-104.
    83. Gabor Papp & Szilard Pafka & Maciej A. Nowak & Imre Kondor, 2005. "Random Matrix Filtering in Portfolio Optimization," Papers physics/0509235, arXiv.org.
    84. Jang, Hoyoon & Sul, Wonsik, 2002. "The Asian financial crisis and the co-movement of Asian stock markets," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 94-104.
    85. Vincenzo Tola & Fabrizio Lillo & Mauro Gallegati & Rosario N. Mantegna, 2005. "Cluster analysis for portfolio optimization," Papers physics/0507006, arXiv.org.
    86. Pierre Cizeau & Marc Potters & Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, 2000. "Correlation structure of extreme stock returns," Papers cond-mat/0006034, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2001.
    87. Kristin J. Forbes & Roberto Rigobon, 2002. "No Contagion, Only Interdependence: Measuring Stock Market Comovements," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 2223-2261, October.
    88. Drożdż, S & Grümmer, F & Górski, A.Z & Ruf, F & Speth, J, 2000. "Dynamics of competition between collectivity and noise in the stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 287(3), pages 440-449.
    89. Orlov, Alexei G., 2009. "A cospectral analysis of exchange rate comovements during Asian financial crisis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 742-758, December.
    90. Michele Tumminello & Fabrizio Lillo & Rosario Nunzio Mantegna, 2007. "Kullback-Leibler distance as a measure of the information filtered from multivariate data," Papers 0706.0168, arXiv.org.
    91. Rigobon, Roberto, 2003. "On the measurement of the international propagation of shocks: is the transmission stable?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 261-283, December.
    92. Varsha Kulkarni & Nivedita Deo, 2007. "Correlation and volatility in an Indian stock market: A random matrix approach," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 60(1), pages 101-109, November.
    93. Drożdż, S & Grümmer, F & Ruf, F & Speth, J, 2001. "Towards identifying the world stock market cross-correlations: DAX versus Dow Jones," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 294(1), pages 226-234.
    94. Wong, Jian Cheng & Lian, Heng & Cheong, Siew Ann, 2009. "Detecting macroeconomic phases in the Dow Jones Industrial Average time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(21), pages 4635-4645.
    95. Zhang, Yiting & Lee, Gladys Hui Ting & Wong, Jian Cheng & Kok, Jun Liang & Prusty, Manamohan & Cheong, Siew Ann, 2011. "Will the US economy recover in 2010? A minimal spanning tree study," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(11), pages 2020-2050.
    96. C. Coronnello & M. Tumminello & F. Lillo & S. Miccich\`e & R. N. Mantegna, 2005. "Sector identification in a set of stock return time series traded at the London Stock Exchange," Papers cond-mat/0508122, arXiv.org.
    97. Giulio Biroli & Jean-Philippe Bouchaud & Marc Potters, 2007. "The Student ensemble of correlation matrices: eigenvalue spectrum and Kullback-Leibler entropy," Papers 0710.0802, arXiv.org.
    98. Conlon, T. & Ruskin, H.J. & Crane, M., 2007. "Random matrix theory and fund of funds portfolio optimisation," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 382(2), pages 565-576.
    99. Longin, Francois & Solnik, Bruno, 1995. "Is the correlation in international equity returns constant: 1960-1990?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-26, February.
    100. Christian Borghesi & Matteo Marsili & Salvatore Miccich\`e, 2007. "Emergence of time-horizon invariant correlation structure in financial returns by subtraction of the market mode," Papers physics/0702106, arXiv.org.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:391:y:2012:i:1:p:187-208. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.