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Are REITs real estate? Evidence from international sector level data

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  • Hoesli, Martin
  • Oikarinen, Elias

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine whether securitized real estate returns reflect direct real estate returns or general stock market returns using international data for the U.S., U.K., and Australia. In contrast to previous research, which has generally relied on overall real estate market indices and neglected the potential long-term dynamics, our econometric evaluation is based on sector level data and caters for both the short-term and long-term dynamics of the assets as well as for the lack of leverage in the direct real estate indices. In addition to the real estate and stock market indices, the analysis includes a number of fundamental variables that are expected to influence real estate and stock returns significantly. We estimate vector error-correction models and investigate the forecast error variance decompositions and impulse responses of the assets. Both the variance decompositions and impulse responses suggest that the long-run REIT market performance is much more closely related to the direct real estate market than to the general stock market. Consequently, REITs and direct real estate should be relatively good substitutes in a long-horizon investment portfolio. The results are of relevance regarding the relationship between public and private markets in general, as the ‘duality’ of the real estate markets offers an opportunity to test whether and how closely securitized asset returns reflect the performance of underlying private assets. The study also includes implications concerning the recent financial crisis.

Suggested Citation

  • Hoesli, Martin & Oikarinen, Elias, 2012. "Are REITs real estate? Evidence from international sector level data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1823-1850.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:31:y:2012:i:7:p:1823-1850
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jimonfin.2012.05.017
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    Cited by:

    1. Aekkachai NITTAYAGASETWAT & Jiroj BURANASIRI, 2016. "Performance Comparison Between Real Estate Securities and Real Estate Investment Using Stochastic Dominance and Mean-Variance Analysis," International Conference on Economic Sciences and Business Administration, Spiru Haret University, vol. 3(1), pages 208-219, October.
    2. Meichi Huang & Chih-Chiang Wu, 2015. "Economic benefits and determinants of extreme dependences between REIT and stock returns," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 299-327, February.
    3. Bruno Milani & Paulo Sergio Ceretta, 2013. "Do Brazilian REITs depend on Real Estate sector companies or Overall Market?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 2948-2957.
    4. repec:kap:jrefec:v:56:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s11146-017-9646-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Kishor, N. Kundan, 2017. "Understanding the Relationship between Public and Private Commercial Real Estate Markets," MPRA Paper 83475, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. repec:eee:ecmode:v:70:y:2018:i:c:p:438-446 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Kraft, Holger & Munk, Claus & Wagner, Sebastian, 2015. "Housing habits and their implications for life-cycle consumption and investment," SAFE Working Paper Series 85, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.
    8. Martin Hoesli & Kustrim Reka, 2015. "Contagion Channels between Real Estate and Financial Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 43(1), pages 101-138, March.
    9. Sum, Vichet, 2014. "Dynamic effects of financial stress on the U.S. real estate market performance," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 80-92.
    10. William Mingyan Cheung & James Chicheong Lei & Desmond Tsang, 2016. "Does Property Transaction Matter in the Price Discovery of Real Estate Markets?," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 19(1), pages 27-49.
    11. repec:eee:mulfin:v:42-43:y:2017:i::p:132-151 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. repec:bla:abacus:v:53:y:2017:i:3:p:395-430 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Andrew Ang & Neil Nabar & Sam Wald, 2013. "Search for a Common Factor in Public and Private Real Estate Returns," NBER Working Papers 19194, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Gerlach, Richard & Obaydin, Ivan & Zurbruegg, Ralf, 2015. "The impact of leverage on the idiosyncratic risk and return relationship of REITs around the financial crisis," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 207-219.
    15. repec:kap:jrefec:v:56:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11146-017-9601-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Just, Tobias & Möbert, Jochen & Heinrich, Michael, . "Deutsche Wohnimmobilien als Kapitalanlage : Gutachten im Auftrag der Deutsche Bank Privat- und Geschäftskunden AG," Beiträge zur Immobilienwirtschaft, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics, number 6.
    17. Huang, MeiChi & Wu, Chih-Chiang & Liu, Shih-Min & Wu, Chang-Che, 2016. "Facts or fates of investors' losses during crises? Evidence from REIT-stock volatility and tail dependence structures," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 54-71.
    18. MeiChi Huang & Tzu-Chien Wang, 2015. "Housing-bubble vulnerability and diversification opportunities during housing boom–bust cycles: evidence from decomposition of asset price returns," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 54(2), pages 605-637, March.
    19. David C. Ling & Andy Naranjo, 2015. "Returns and Information Transmission Dynamics in Public and Private Real Estate Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 43(1), pages 163-208, March.
    20. John Cotter & Richard Roll, 2015. "A Comparative Anatomy of Residential REITs and Private Real Estate Markets: Returns, Risks and Distributional Characteristics," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 43(1), pages 209-240, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Public and private real estate; REITs; Property type; Dynamics; Leverage; Fundamentals; VECM;

    JEL classification:

    • R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location

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