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New International Evidence on Real Estate as a Portfolio Diversifier

Author

Listed:
  • Martin Hoesli

    () (UNIVERSITY OF GENEVA)

  • Jon Lekander
  • Witold Witkiewicz

Abstract

This paper provides an international comparison of the benefits of including real estate assets in mixed-asset portfolios. Real estate returns are desmoothed using a variant of the Geltner (1993) approach, and Bayes-Stein estimators are used to increase the stability of portfolio weight estimations. Both unhedged and hedged analyses are conducted. Real estate is found to be an effective portfolio diversifier, and even more so when both domestic and international real estate assets are considered. The optimal allocation to real estate is 15% to 25%, and remains stable when the level of the standard deviation of real estate is altered. Real estate allocation between domestic and nondomestic assets, however, varies substantially across countries, depending on whether returns are hedged or not.

Suggested Citation

  • Martin Hoesli & Jon Lekander & Witold Witkiewicz, 2004. "New International Evidence on Real Estate as a Portfolio Diversifier," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 26(2), pages 161-206.
  • Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:26:n:2:2004:p:161-206
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jeffrey Fisher & Dean Gatzlaff & David Geltner & Donald Haurin, 2003. "Controlling for the Impact of Variable Liquidity in Commercial Real Estate Price Indices," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(2), pages 269-303, June.
    2. David M. Geltner, 1993. "Estimating Market Values from Appraised Values without Assuming an Efficient Market," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(3), pages 325-346.
    3. Jorion, Philippe, 1985. "International Portfolio Diversification with Estimation Risk," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(3), pages 259-278, July.
    4. Jorion, Philippe, 1986. "Bayes-Stein Estimation for Portfolio Analysis," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(03), pages 279-292, September.
    5. Graeme Newell & James R. Webb, 1996. "Assessing Risk for International Real Estate Investments," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 11(2), pages 103-116.
    6. Gregory H. Chun, 1998. "Real Estate Asset Allocations and International Real Estate Markets," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 1(1), pages 17-44.
    7. R. Brian Webb & Mike Miles & David Guilkey, 1992. "Transactions-Driven Commercial Real Estate Returns: The Panacea to Asset Allocation Models?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 20(2), pages 325-357.
    8. Julian Diaz & Marvin L. Wolverton, 1998. "A Longitudinal Examination of the Appraisal Smoothing Hypothesis," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(2), pages 349-358.
    9. Geltner, David & Goetzmann, William, 2000. "Two Decades of Commercial Property Returns: A Repeated-Measures Regression-Based Version of the NCREIF Index," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 5-21, July.
    10. Simon Stevenson, 2000. "International Real Estate Diversification: Empirical Tests using Hedged Indices," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 19(1), pages 105-131.
    11. Gregory H. Chun & James D. Shilling, 1998. "Real Estate Asset Allocations and International Real Estate Markets," Wisconsin-Madison CULER working papers 98-04, University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Martin Hoesli & Jon Lekander, 2008. "Real estate portfolio strategy and product innovation in Europe," Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 26(2), pages 162-176, March.
    2. Zaleczna Magdalena & Wolski Rafał, 2010. "Polish Pension Funds Investment - is There A Place For Real Property in A Portfolio?," Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia, De Gruyter Open, vol. 9(1), pages 151-166, January.
    3. Andrew Baum & Claudia Murray, "undated". "Understanding the Barriers to Real Estate Investment in Developing Economies," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2011-08, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    4. Graeme Newell & Chau Kwong Wing & Wong Siu Kei & Liow Kim Hiang, 2009. "The significance and performance of property securities markets in the Asian IFCs," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 125-148, October.
    5. repec:kap:jrefec:v:56:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s11146-017-9646-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Martin Hoesli & Kustrim Reka, 2013. "Volatility Spillovers, Comovements and Contagion in Securitized Real Estate Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 1-35, July.
    7. Pattaragit Netiniyom, 2013. "Institutional Investor Recognition on Financial Asset Tranches: A Study of The Thai Property Sector," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 5(2), pages 129-144, December.
    8. Haß, Lars Helge & Johanning, Lutz & Rudolph, Bernd & Schweizer, Denis, 2012. "Open-ended property funds: Risk and return profile — Diversification benefits and liquidity risks," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 90-107.
    9. Carlos Rodríguez & Ricardo Bustillo, 2010. "Modelling Foreign Real Estate Investment: The Spanish Case," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 354-367, October.
    10. Hoesli, Martin & Oikarinen, Elias, 2012. "Are REITs real estate? Evidence from international sector level data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1823-1850.
    11. William Mingyan Cheung & James Chicheong Lei & Desmond Tsang, 2016. "Does Property Transaction Matter in the Price Discovery of Real Estate Markets?," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 19(1), pages 27-49.
    12. Nazlioglu, Saban & Gormus, N. Alper & Soytas, Uğur, 2016. "Oil prices and real estate investment trusts (REITs): Gradual-shift causality and volatility transmission analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 168-175.
    13. repec:uts:finphd:35 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Robert Johnson & Colin Lizieri & Luc Soenen & Elaine M. Worzala, 2005. "Hedging Private International Real Estate," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2005-01, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    15. Martin Hoesli & Eva Liljeblom & Anders Loflund, 2014. "The Effect of Lock-Ups on the Suggested Real Estate Portfolio Weight," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 17(1), pages 1-22.
    16. Roberto Cervelló-Royo & Francisco Guijarro & Thomas Pfahler & Marion Preuss, 2016. "An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework for property valuation to identify the ideal 2050 portfolio mixes in EU-27 countries with shrinking populations," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(5), pages 2313-2329, September.
    17. Kim Hiang Liow & Graeme Newell, 2012. "Investment Dynamics of the Greater China Securitized Real Estate Markets," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 34(3), pages 399-428.
    18. Just, Tobias & Möbert, Jochen & Heinrich, Michael, . "Deutsche Wohnimmobilien als Kapitalanlage : Gutachten im Auftrag der Deutsche Bank Privat- und Geschäftskunden AG," Beiträge zur Immobilienwirtschaft, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics, number 6.
    19. Stephen Lee & Simon Stevenson, 2004. "The Case for REITs in the Mixed-Asset Portfolio in the Short and Long Run," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2004-06, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    20. Kim Hiang Liow & Xiaoxia Zhou & Qing Ye, 2015. "Correlation Dynamics and Determinants in International Securitized Real Estate Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 43(3), pages 537-585, September.
    21. George D. Cashman & David M. Harrison & Hainan Sheng, 2015. "Political Risk and the Cost of Capital in Asia-Pacific Property Markets," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 18(3), pages 331-364.
    22. Heidi Falkenbach & Jaakko Niskanen & Sami Kiehelä, 2013. "Development and performance of the public real estate investment sector in Finland," International Journal of Strategic Property Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 233-247, September.
    23. Nafeesa Yunus, 2013. "Dynamic interactions among property types: International evidence based on cointegration tests," Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 135-159, March.
    24. Piet Eichholtz & Nils Gugler & Nils Kok, 2011. "Transparency, Integration, and the Cost of International Real Estate Investments," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 152-173, July.

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    JEL classification:

    • L85 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Real Estate Services

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