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The Role of Real Estate in the Portfolio Allocation Process

Author

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  • Jarl G. Kallberg
  • Crocker H. Liu
  • D. Wylie Greig

Abstract

This study explores the role of direct real estate investment in a portfolio context incorporating the real estate imperfections of indivisible assets and no short sales. Mean-variance efficient portfolios are calculated using Treasury-bills, bond and equity indices together with cash flows and appraised values from a set of twenty-two properties having an aggregate appraised value of $336 million. Real estate diversification benefits are shown to be the greatest with smaller properties and are most advantageous at higher target levels of return. The study suggests that a 9% allocation to real estate is optimal, rather than the 20% figure suggested in other studies. Copyright American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Jarl G. Kallberg & Crocker H. Liu & D. Wylie Greig, 1996. "The Role of Real Estate in the Portfolio Allocation Process," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 24(3), pages 359-377.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:24:y:1996:i:3:p:359-377
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Sally M. Davies & Douglas A. McManus, 1991. "The effects of closure policies on bank risk-taking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 158, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    4. Furlong, Frederick T. & Keeley, Michael C., 1989. "Capital regulation and bank risk-taking: A note," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 883-891, December.
    5. Davies, Sally M. & McManus, Douglas A., 1991. "The effects of closure policies on bank risk-taking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 917-938, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Zhenguo Lin & Kerry D. Vandell, 2007. "Illiquidity and Pricing Biases in the Real Estate Market," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 35(3), pages 291-330, September.
    2. Armonat, Stefan & Pfnür, Andreas, 2002. "Basel II and the German credit crunch?," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 35585, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    3. Glassman, Debra A. & Riddick, Leigh A., 2001. "What causes home asset bias and how should it be measured?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, pages 35-54.
    4. Carolina Fugazza & Massimo Guidolin & Giovanna Nicodano, 2007. "Investing for the Long-run in European Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 35-80, January.
    5. Martin Hoesli & Eva Liljeblom & Anders Loflund, 2014. "The Effect of Lock-Ups on the Suggested Real Estate Portfolio Weight," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 17(1), pages 1-22.
    6. Walter Boudry & N. Coulson & Jarl Kallberg & Crocker Liu, 2013. "On Indexing Commercial Real Estate Properties and Portfolios," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 617-639, November.
    7. repec:gam:jecomi:v:5:y:2017:i:4:p:38-:d:115667 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:eme:sefpps:v:33:y:2016:i:4:p:735-754 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Daniele Bianchi & Massimo Guidolin, 2014. "Can Linear Predictability Models Time Bull and Bear Real Estate Markets? Out-of-Sample Evidence from REIT Portfolios," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 116-164, July.
    10. Mayordomo, Sergio & Rodriguez-Moreno, Maria & Peña, Juan Ignacio, 2014. "Liquidity commonalities in the corporate CDS market around the 2007–2012 financial crisis," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, pages 171-192.
    11. Andonov, Aleksandar & Eichholtz, Piet & Kok, Nils, 2015. "Intermediated investment management in private markets: Evidence from pension fund investments in real estate," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 73-103.
    12. Dirk Brounen & Melissa Porras Prado & Marno Verbeek, 2010. "Real Estate in an ALM Framework: The Case of Fair Value Accounting," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 38(4), pages 775-804, Winter.
    13. Chun-Kei Tsang & Wing-Keung Wong & Ira Horowitz, 2016. "Arbitrage opportunities, efficiency, and the role of risk preferences in the Hong Kong property market," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(4), pages 735-754, October.
    14. Sergio Mayordomo & Maria Rodriguez-Moreno & Juan Ignacio Peña, 2014. "Portfolio choice with indivisible and illiquid housing assets: the case of Spain," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 2045-2064.
    15. Tsang, Chun-Kei & Wong, Wing-Keung & Horowitz, Ira, 2016. "A stochastic-dominance approach to determining the optimal home-size purchase: The case of Hong Kong," MPRA Paper 69175, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Simon Stevenson, 2000. "International Real Estate Diversification: Empirical Tests using Hedged Indices," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 19(1), pages 105-131.

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