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International Real Estate Diversification: Empirical Tests using Hedged Indices

This study examines the potential diversification opportunities arising from the extension of real estate portfolios into an international environment. Using data for ten countries, the article compares the diversification benefits obtained from both real estate securities and hedged indices. The hedged indices are constructed in line with the methodology proposed by Giliberto (1993) and are examined as a potential alternative proxy for the direct market. The results indicate that while benefits do arise from international diversification, the results tend to be statistically significant only when local returns are used and no constraints are imposed on the optimal portfolios. In addition, there are concerns over the reliability of the mean return and correlation coefficients obtained using the hedged indices.

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File URL: http://pages.jh.edu/jrer/papers/pdf/past/vol19n01/v19n105_132.pdf
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Article provided by American Real Estate Society in its journal Journal of Real Estate Research.

Volume (Year): 19 (2000)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 105-131

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Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:19:n:1:2000:p:105-131
Contact details of provider: Postal: American Real Estate Society Clemson University School of Business & Behavioral Science Department of Finance 401 Sirrine Hall Clemson, SC 29634-1323
Web page: http://www.aresnet.org/
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Order Information: Postal: Diane Quarles American Real Estate Society Manager of Member Services Clemson University Box 341323 Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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  1. MacKinlay, A Craig & Richardson, Matthew P, 1991. " Using Generalized Method of Moments to Test Mean-Variance Efficiency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 511-27, June.
  2. Ross, Stephen A & Zisler, Randall C, 1991. "Risk and Return in Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 175-90, June.
  3. Kandel, Shmuel & Stambaugh, Robert F, 1989. "A Mean-Variance Framework for Tests of Asset Pricing Models," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 2(2), pages 125-56.
  4. Glen, Jack & Jorion, Philippe, 1993. " Currency Hedging for International Portfolios," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1865-86, December.
  5. Piet M.A. Eichholtz, 1996. "The Stability of the Covariances of International Property Share Returns," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 11(2), pages 149-158.
  6. Jobson, J D & Korkie, Bob M, 1981. "Performance Hypothesis Testing with the Sharpe and Treynor Measures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(4), pages 889-908, September.
  7. Yougou Liang & Michael J. Seiler & Arjun Chatrath, 1998. "Are REIT Returns Hedgeable?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 16(1), pages 87-98.
  8. Alan J. Ziobrowski & Richard Curcio, 1991. "Diversification Benefits of U.S. Real Estate to Foreign Investors," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 6(2), pages 119-142.
  9. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  10. Richard A. Graff & Michael S. Young, 1999. "The Magnitude of Random Appraisal Error in Commercial Real Estate Valuation," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 17(1), pages 33-54.
  11. Alan J. Ziobrowski & Brigitte J. Ziobrowski & Sidney Rosenberg, 1997. "Currency Swaps and International Real Estate Investment," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(2), pages 223-251.
  12. Piet Eichholtz & Ronald Huisman & Kees Koedijk & Lisa Schuin, 1998. "Continental Factors in International Real Estate Returns," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 493-509.
  13. David Geltner, 1993. "Temporal Aggregation in Real Estate Return Indices," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 21(2), pages 141-166.
  14. Jorion, Philippe, 1985. "International Portfolio Diversification with Estimation Risk," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(3), pages 259-78, July.
  15. Gibbons, Michael R & Ross, Stephen A & Shanken, Jay, 1989. "A Test of the Efficiency of a Given Portfolio," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(5), pages 1121-52, September.
  16. Jarl G. Kallberg & Crocker H. Liu & D. Wylie Greig, 1996. "The Role of Real Estate in the Portfolio Allocation Process," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 24(3), pages 359-377.
  17. Tsong-Yue Lai & Ko Wang, 1998. "Appraisal Smoothing: The Other Side of the Story," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 511-535.
  18. Youguo Liang & Arjun Chatrath & Willard McIntosh, 1996. "Apartment REITs and Apartment Real Estate," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 11(3), pages 277-290.
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