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Continental Factors in International Real Estate Returns

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  • Piet Eichholtz
  • Ronald Huisman
  • Kees Koedijk
  • Lisa Schuin

Abstract

This paper examines the extent to which real estate returns are driven by continental factors. This subject is relevant for determining the country allocation of international real estate portfolios. If returns are driven by a continental factor, investors should look for diversification opportunities outside their own continent. This paper finds strong continental factors in North America and especially in the United States. For the Asia-Pacific region, real estate returns are not driven by a continental factor. The results suggest that, for European, North American and Asia-Pacific real estate portfolio managers, the Asia-Pacific region provides attractive international diversification opportunities. Copyright American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Piet Eichholtz & Ronald Huisman & Kees Koedijk & Lisa Schuin, 1998. "Continental Factors in International Real Estate Returns," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 493-509.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:26:y:1998:i:3:p:493-509
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ivo Wit, 2010. "International Diversification Strategies for Direct Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 433-457, November.
    2. Helen Higgs & Andrew C. Worthington, 2002. "The Prospects for Geographic Diversification in UK Regional Property Investment: Implications Derived from Multivariate Cointegration Analysis," School of Economics and Finance Discussion Papers and Working Papers Series 111, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology.
    3. Kristin Wellner & Matthias Thomas, 2004. "Diversification Benefits from European Direct Real Estate Investment with a Special Focus on the German Market," ERES eres2004_231, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
    4. Gerlach, Richard & Wilson, Patrick & Zurbruegg, Ralf, 2006. "Structural breaks and diversification: The impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis on the integration of Asia-Pacific real estate markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 974-991, October.
    5. Graeme Newell & Chau Kwong Wing & Wong Siu Kei & Liow Kim Hiang, 2009. "The significance and performance of property securities markets in the Asian IFCs," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 125-148, October.
    6. William N. Goetzmann & Bradford Case & K. Geert Rouwenhorst, 1999. "Global Real Estate Markets: Cycles And Fundamentals," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm116, Yale School of Management.
    7. Martin Hoesli & Kustrim Reka, 2013. "Volatility Spillovers, Comovements and Contagion in Securitized Real Estate Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 1-35, July.
    8. Foort Hamelink & Martin Hoesli, 2004. "What Factors Determine International Real Estate Security Returns?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 32(3), pages 437-462, September.
    9. Kim Liow & Wei Chen, 2013. "Is There Volatility Convergence in Asia-Pacific Securitized Real Estate Markets?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 370-390, August.
    10. Simon Stevenson, 2000. "International Real Estate Diversification: Empirical Tests using Hedged Indices," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 19(1), pages 105-131.
    11. Kim Hiang Liow, 2008. "Financial Crisis and Asian Real Estate Securities Market Interdependence: Some Additional Evidence," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(2), pages 127-155, November.
    12. Andrey Pavlov & Eva Steiner & Susan Wachter, 2015. "Macroeconomic Risk Factors and the Role of Mispriced Credit in the Returns from International Real Estate Securities," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 43(1), pages 241-270, March.
    13. Barry, Christopher B. & Rodriguez, Mauricio, 2004. "Risk and return characteristics of property indices in emerging markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 131-159, June.
    14. Nafeesa Yunus, 2009. "Increasing Convergence Between U.S. and International Securitized Property Markets: Evidence Based on Cointegration Tests," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 37(3), pages 383-411.
    15. Stephen Lee, 2008. "Is The Uk Real Estate Market Converging With The Rest Of Europe?," ERES eres2008_192, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
    16. I-Chun Tsai & Cheng-Feng Lee, 2012. "The convergent behavior in REIT markets," Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1), pages 42-57, February.
    17. John Gallo & Ying Zhang, 2010. "Global Property Market Diversification," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 458-485, November.
    18. Robert Edelstein & Wenlan Qian & Desmond Tsang, 2011. "How Do Institutional Factors Affect International Real Estate Returns?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 130-151, July.
    19. Anupam Nanda & Jia-Huey Yeh, 2016. "International Transmission Mechanisms and Contagion in Housing Markets," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(7), pages 1005-1024, July.
    20. George D. Cashman & David M. Harrison & Hainan Sheng, 2015. "Political Risk and the Cost of Capital in Asia-Pacific Property Markets," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 18(3), pages 331-364.
    21. Jian Zhou, 2012. "Multiscale Analysis of International Linkages of REIT Returns and Volatilities," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(4), pages 1062-1087, November.
    22. Mohamadou L. Fadi & Yongsheng Wang, 2014. "Common Stochastic Volatility in International Real Estate Market," Journal of Reviews on Global Economics, Lifescience Global, vol. 3, pages 131-139.
    23. Piet Eichholtz & Nils Gugler & Nils Kok, 2011. "Transparency, Integration, and the Cost of International Real Estate Investments," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 152-173, July.

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