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Appraisal Smoothing: The Other Side of the Story

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  • Tsong-Yue Lai
  • Ko Wang

Abstract

Appraisal smoothing has been widely accepted as an important factor to consider when analyzing real estate returns using appraisal-based data. In this paper, we demonstrate that the general applicability of the appraisal-smoothing arguments developed so far in the literature is limited by the assumptions upon which the arguments are based. We further show that the use of appraisal-based data can result in a higher (not lower) variance than that of true returns. Given this, it might be more fruitful to analyze the unique characteristics of real estate markets as possible explanations for the seemingly low variance observed in appraisal-based (or transaction-based) return indexes. Copyright American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Tsong-Yue Lai & Ko Wang, 1998. "Appraisal Smoothing: The Other Side of the Story," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 511-535.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:26:y:1998:i:3:p:511-535
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. John Knight & Colin Lizieri & Stephen Satchell, 2005. "Diversification When It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Real Estate and Equity Markets," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2005-16, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    2. Yun W. Park & Doo Woan Bahng & Sae Woon Park, 2010. "Are Broker Quotes Too Optimistic? Korean Evidence," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 13(1), pages 46-78.
    3. William Mingyan Cheung & James Chicheong Lei & Desmond Tsang, 2016. "Does Property Transaction Matter in the Price Discovery of Real Estate Markets?," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 19(1), pages 27-49.
    4. Jeff Fisher & David Geltner & Henry Pollakowski, 2007. "A Quarterly Transactions-based Index of Institutional Real Estate Investment Performance and Movements in Supply and Demand," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 5-33, January.
    5. Martin Hoesli & Colin Lizieri & Bryan MacGregor, 2008. "The Inflation Hedging Characteristics of US and UK Investments: A Multi-Factor Error Correction Approach," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 183-206, February.
    6. David Ho & Kwame Addae-Dapaah & John Glascock, 2015. "International Direct Real Estate Risk Premiums in a Multi-Factor Estimation Model," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 51(1), pages 52-85, July.
    7. Armonat, Stefan & Pfnür, Andreas, 2002. "Basel II and the German credit crunch?," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 35585, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    8. Steven H. Ott & Timothy J. Riddiough & Ha-Chin Yi & Jiro Yoshida, 2008. "On Demand: Cross-Country Evidence From Commercial Real Estate Asset Markets," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 11(1), pages 1-37.
    9. McKenzie, Michael & Satchell, Stephen & Wongwachara, Warapong, 2014. "Converting true returns into reported returns: A general theory of linear smoothing and anti-smoothing," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 215-229.
    10. Sampagnaro, Gabriele & Battaglia, Francesca, 2010. "Reliability and Heterogeneity of Real Estate Indexes and their Impact on the Predictability of Returns," MPRA Paper 23378, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. J. Andrew Hansz, 2005. "Prior transaction price induced smoothing: testing and calibrating the Quan--Quigley model at the disaggregate level," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 321-336, April.
    12. Youngha Cho & Soosung Hwang & Yong-ki Lee, 2014. "The Dynamics of Appraisal Smoothing," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 42(2), pages 497-529, June.
    13. Robert Edelstein & Daniel Quan, 2006. "How Does Appraisal Smoothing Bias Real Estate Returns Measurement?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 41-60, February.
    14. Charles Ka Yui Leung & Patrick Wai Yin Cheung & Erica Jiajia Ding, 2008. "Intra-metropolitan Office Price and Trading Volume Dynamics: Evidence from Hong Kong," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 11(2), pages 47-74.
    15. Alain Chaney & Martin Hoesli, 2015. "Transaction-Based and Appraisal-Based Capitalization Rate Determinants," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 18(1), pages 1-43.
    16. Armonat, Stefan & Pfnür, Andreas, 2003. "Asset allocation versus entrepreneurial decisions in real estate investment," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 35582, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    17. Colin Lizieri & Charles Ward, 2000. "Commercial Real Estate Return Distributions: A Review Of Literature And Empirical Evidence," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2000-01, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    18. Shaun A. Bond & Soosung Hwang & Gianluca Marcato, 2006. "An Analysis of Commercial Real Estate Returns: Is there a Smoothing Puzzle?," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2006-17, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    19. Joseph L. Pagliari, Jr. & James R. Webb & Todd A. Canter & Frederich Lieblich, 1997. "A Fundamental Comparison of International Real Estate Returns," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 13(3), pages 317-348.
    20. John Knight & Colin Lizieri & Stephen Satchell, 2005. "Diversification when It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Real Estate and Equity Markets1," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 309-323, December.
    21. Patric H. Hendershott & Thomas G. Thibodeau & Halbert C. Smith, 2009. "Evolution of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association-super-1," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 37(4), pages 559-598.
    22. Richard A. Graff & Michael S. Young, 1997. "Serial Persistence in Equity REIT Returns," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 14(3), pages 183-214.
    23. Deng, Yongheng & McMillen, Daniel P. & Sing, Tien Foo, 2014. "Matching indices for thinly-traded commercial real estate in Singapore," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 86-98.
    24. Simon Stevenson, 2000. "International Real Estate Diversification: Empirical Tests using Hedged Indices," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 19(1), pages 105-131.

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