IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Do private standards create exclusive supply chains? New evidence from the Peruvian asparagus export sector

  • Schuster, Monica
  • Maertens, Miet
Registered author(s):

    Developing countries are increasingly exporting fresh horticultural products to high-income countries. These exports increasingly have to comply with stringent public and private standards, as well as other quality and safety issues. There is an ongoing debate on the effect of private standards on the inclusion of small-scale farmers in export supply chains. With this paper, we contribute to this debate by providing new evidence from the Peruvian asparagus export sector, and by addressing several important methodological shortcomings and gaps in the existing literature. We describe export dynamics using a unique firm level dataset on 567 asparagus export firms from 1993 to 2011 and the evolution of certification to private standards using own survey data from a stratified random sample of 87 export firms. We use an unbalanced panel of the surveyed companies on 19years and several methods, including fixed effects and GMM estimators, to estimate the causal impact of certification to private standards on companies' sourcing strategy. We find that certification leads to vertical integration and significantly reduces the share of produce that is sourced from external producers, with a larger effect for small-scale producers. When distinguishing between production and processing standards, and between low-level and high-level standards, we find that especially high-level production standards have a negative impact on sourcing from (small-scale) producers.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919213001528
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Food Policy.

    Volume (Year): 43 (2013)
    Issue (Month): C ()
    Pages: 291-305

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:43:y:2013:i:c:p:291-305
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/foodpol

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Chemnitz, Christine, 2007. "The Compliance Decision with Food Quality Standards on Primary Producer Level; A Case Study of the EUREPGAP Standard in the Moroccan Tomato Sector," 103rd Seminar, April 23-25, 2007, Barcelona, Spain 9440, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Thijs Vandemoortele & Scott Rozelle & Johan Swinnen & Tao Xiang, 2012. "Quality and Inclusion of Producers in Value Chains: A Theoretical Note," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 122-136, 02.
    3. Lemeilleur, Sylvaine, 2012. "Smallholder compliance with private standard certification: the case of GlobalGAP adoption by mango producers in Peru," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 123457, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Mausch, Kai & Mithofer, Dagmar & Asfaw, Solomon & Waibel, Hermann, 2009. "Export Vegetable Production in Kenya under the EurepGAP Standard: Is Large “More Beautiful†than Small?," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 40(3), November.
    5. William Greene, 2004. "The behaviour of the maximum likelihood estimator of limited dependent variable models in the presence of fixed effects," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(1), pages 98-119, 06.
    6. Peter Gibbon, 2003. "Value-chain Governance, Public Regulation and Entry Barriers in the Global Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Chain into the EU," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 21(5-6), pages 615-625, December.
    7. Henson, Spencer & Masakure, Oliver & Boselie, David, 2005. "Private food safety and quality standards for fresh produce exporters: The case of Hortico Agrisystems, Zimbabwe," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 371-384, August.
    8. Otsuki, Tsunehiro & S. Wilson, John, 2003. "Food Safety and Trade: Winners and Losers in a Non-Harmonized World," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 18, pages 266-287.
    9. Sven M. Anders & Julie A. Caswell, 2007. "Standards as Barriers Versus Standards as Catalysts: Assessing the Impact of HACCP Implementation on U.S. Seafood Imports," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(2), pages 310-321.
    10. Henson, Spencer & Reardon, Thomas, 2005. "Private agri-food standards: Implications for food policy and the agri-food system," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 241-253, June.
    11. Julie Subervie & Isabelle Vagneron, 2013. "A drop of water in the Indian ocean? The impact of GlobalGap certification on lychee farmers in Madagascar," Working Papers 189575, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
    12. Spencer Henson & John Humphrey, 2010. "Understanding the Complexities of Private Standards in Global Agri-Food Chains as They Impact Developing Countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(9), pages 1628-1646.
    13. Kersting, Sarah & Wollni, Meike, 2012. "New institutional arrangements and standard adoption: Evidence from small-scale fruit and vegetable farmers in Thailand," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 452-462.
    14. Swinnen, Johan F.M. & Vandeplas, Anneleen, 2009. "Rich consumers and poor producers: Quality and rent distribution in global value chains," IFPRI discussion papers 932, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    15. Papke, Leslie E & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M, 1996. "Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(K) Plan Participation Rates," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 619-32, Nov.-Dec..
    16. Maertens, Miet & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Trade, Standards, and Poverty: Evidence from Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 161-178, January.
    17. Unnevehr, Laurian J., 2000. "Food safety issues and fresh food product exports from LDCs," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 231-240, September.
    18. Jaffee, Steve & Masakure, Oliver, 2005. "Strategic use of private standards to enhance international competitiveness: Vegetable exports from Kenya and elsewhere," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 316-333, June.
    19. Solomon Asfaw & Dagmar Mithöfer & Hermann Waibel, 2010. "Agrifood supply chain, private-sector standards, and farmers' health: evidence from Kenya," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 41(3-4), pages 251-263, 05.
    20. Jose Blandon & Spencer Henson & Towhidul Islam, 2009. "Marketing preferences of small-scale farmers in the context of new agrifood systems: a stated choice model," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(2), pages 251-267.
    21. Codron, Jean-Marie & Giraud-Heraud, Eric & Soler, Louis-Georges, 2005. "Minimum quality standards, premium private labels, and European meat and fresh produce retailing," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 270-283, June.
    22. Axel Marx & Miet Maertens & Johan Swinnen & Jan Wouters (ed.), 2012. "Private Standards and Global Governance," Books, Edward Elgar, number 14250.
    23. Jongwanich, Juthathip, 2009. "The impact of food safety standards on processed food exports from developing countries," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 447-457, October.
    24. Miet Maertens & Bart Minten & Johan Swinnen, 2012. "Modern Food Supply Chains and Development: Evidence from Horticulture Export Sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 30(4), pages 473-497, 07.
    25. John Wilson & Tsunehiro Otsuki & Baishali Majumdsar, 2003. "Balancing food safety and risk: do drug residue limits affect international trade in beef?," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 377-402.
    26. Reardon, Thomas & Barrett, Christopher B. & Berdegué, Julio A. & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Agrifood Industry Transformation and Small Farmers in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1717-1727, November.
    27. Narrod, Clare & Roy, Devesh & Okello, Julius & Avendaño, Belem & Rich, Karl & Thorat, Amit, 2009. "Public-private partnerships and collective action in high value fruit and vegetable supply chains," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 8-15, February.
    28. Beghin, John C., 2012. "Non Tariff Measures with Market Imperfections: Trade and Welfare Implications," 2012: New Rules of Trade?, December 2012, San Diego, California 142787, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    29. Kleinwechter, Ulrich & Grethe, Harald, 2006. "The adoption of the Eurepgap Standard by Mango Exporters in Piura, Peru," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25521, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    30. Papke, Leslie E. & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 2008. "Panel data methods for fractional response variables with an application to test pass rates," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 145(1-2), pages 121-133, July.
    31. Shimizu, Tatsuya, 2006. "Expansion of Asparagus Production and Exports in Peru," IDE Discussion Papers 73, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    32. Henson, Spencer & Masakure, Oliver & Cranfield, John, 2011. "Do Fresh Produce Exporters in Sub-Saharan Africa Benefit from GlobalGAP Certification?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 375-386, March.
    33. Steve Bond, 2002. "Dynamic panel data models: a guide to microdata methods and practice," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/02, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    34. David Boselie & Spencer Henson & Dave Weatherspoon, 2003. "Supermarket Procurement Practices in Developing Countries: Redefining the Roles of the Public and Private Sectors," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1155-1161.
    35. Bignebat, C. & Vagneron, I., 2011. "Cross-border coordination in the Madagascar-EU lychee chain: the role of GlobalGAP," Working Papers MOISA 201106, UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD - Montpellier, France.
    36. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
    37. Herzfeld, Thomas & Drescher, Larissa S. & Grebitus, Carola, 2011. "Cross-national adoption of private food quality standards," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 401-411, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:43:y:2013:i:c:p:291-305. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.