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Estimating covariation: Epps effect, microstructure noise

  • Zhang, Lan
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    This paper is about how to estimate the integrated covariance T of two assets over a fixed time horizon [0,T], when the observations of X and Y are "contaminated" and when such noisy observations are at discrete, but not synchronized, times. We show that the usual previous-tick covariance estimator is biased, and the size of the bias is more pronounced for less liquid assets. This is an analytic characterization of the Epps effect. We also provide the optimal sampling frequency which balances the tradeoff between the bias and various sources of stochastic error terms, including nonsynchronous trading, microstructure noise, and time discretization. Finally, a two scales covariance estimator is provided which simultaneously cancels (to first order) the Epps effect and the effect of microstructure noise. The gain is demonstrated in data.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VC0-4YJ6GKX-9/2/7ce0fcad18e4775b25feb058f999eb8a
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    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Econometrics.

    Volume (Year): 160 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 1 (January)
    Pages: 33-47

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:160:y:2011:i:1:p:33-47
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconom

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    1. Jacod, Jean & Li, Yingying & Mykland, Per A. & Podolskij, Mark & Vetter, Mathias, 2007. "Microstructure noise in the continuous case: the pre-averaging approach," Technical Reports 2007,41, Technische Universität Dortmund, Sonderforschungsbereich 475: Komplexitätsreduktion in multivariaten Datenstrukturen.
    2. Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E. & Hansen, Peter Reinhard & Lunde, Asger & Shephard, Neil, 2011. "Multivariate realised kernels: Consistent positive semi-definite estimators of the covariation of equity prices with noise and non-synchronous trading," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 162(2), pages 149-169, June.
    3. Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen & Peter Reinhard Hansen & Asger Lunde & Neil Shephard, 2006. "Subsampling realised kernels," Economics Papers 2006-W10, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    4. Andersen T. G & Bollerslev T. & Diebold F. X & Labys P., 2001. "The Distribution of Realized Exchange Rate Volatility," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 96, pages 42-55, March.
    5. Zhang, Lan & Mykland, Per A. & Aït-Sahalia, Yacine, 2011. "Edgeworth expansions for realized volatility and related estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 160(1), pages 190-203, January.
    6. Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard, 2002. "Econometric analysis of realized volatility and its use in estimating stochastic volatility models," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 64(2), pages 253-280.
    7. Lan Zhang & Per A. Mykland & Yacine Ait-Sahalia, 2003. "A Tale of Two Time Scales: Determining Integrated Volatility with Noisy High Frequency Data," NBER Working Papers 10111, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Griffin, Jim E. & Oomen, Roel C.A., 2011. "Covariance measurement in the presence of non-synchronous trading and market microstructure noise," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 160(1), pages 58-68, January.
    9. Valeri Voev & Asger Lunde, 2007. "Integrated Covariance Estimation using High-frequency Data in the Presence of Noise," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 5(1), pages 68-104.
    10. Scholes, Myron & Williams, Joseph, 1977. "Estimating betas from nonsynchronous data," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 309-327, December.
    11. Lo, Andrew W. & Craig MacKinlay, A., 1990. "An econometric analysis of nonsynchronous trading," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1-2), pages 181-211.
    12. Yacine Ait-Sahalia & Per A. Mykland & Lan Zhang, 2005. "Ultra High Frequency Volatility Estimation with Dependent Microstructure Noise," NBER Working Papers 11380, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Yacine Aït-Sahalia, 2005. "How Often to Sample a Continuous-Time Process in the Presence of Market Microstructure Noise," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(2), pages 351-416.
    14. Andersen, Torben G & Bollerslev, Tim, 1998. "Answering the Skeptics: Yes, Standard Volatility Models Do Provide Accurate Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 885-905, November.
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