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Covariance measurement in the presence of non-synchronous trading and market microstructure noise

Listed author(s):
  • Griffin, Jim E.
  • Oomen, Roel C.A.

This paper studies the problem of covariance estimation when prices are observed non-synchronously and contaminated by i.i.d. microstructure noise. We derive closed form expressions for the bias and variance of three popular covariance estimators, namely realised covariance, realised covariance plus lead and lag adjustments, and the Hayashi and Yoshida estimator, and present a comprehensive investigation into their properties and relative efficiency. Our main finding is that the ordering of the covariance estimators in terms of efficiency crucially depends on the level of microstructure noise, as well as the level of correlation. In fact, for sufficiently high levels of noise, the standard realised covariance estimator (without any corrections for non-synchronous trading) can be most efficient. We also propose a sparse sampling implementation of the Hayashi and Yoshida estimator, study the robustness of our findings using simulations with stochastic volatility and correlation, and highlight some important practical considerations.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Econometrics.

Volume (Year): 160 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 58-68

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Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:160:y:2011:i:1:p:58-68
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  1. Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen & Peter Reinhard Hansen & Asger Lunde & Neil Shephard, 2008. "Multivariate realised kernels: consistent positive semi-definite estimators of the covariation of equity prices with noise and non-synchronous trading," CREATES Research Papers 2008-63, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
  2. Zhang, Lan & Mykland, Per A. & Ait-Sahalia, Yacine, 2005. "A Tale of Two Time Scales: Determining Integrated Volatility With Noisy High-Frequency Data," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 100, pages 1394-1411, December.
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  5. Hansen, Peter R. & Lunde, Asger, 2006. "Realized Variance and Market Microstructure Noise," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 127-161, April.
  6. Anderson, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Diebold, Francis X. & Labys, Paul, 2002. "Modeling and Forecasting Realized Volatility," Working Papers 02-12, Duke University, Department of Economics.
  7. Jacod, Jean & Li, Yingying & Mykland, Per A. & Podolskij, Mark & Vetter, Mathias, 2007. "Microstructure noise in the continuous case: the pre-averaging approach," Technical Reports 2007,41, Technische Universität Dortmund, Sonderforschungsbereich 475: Komplexitätsreduktion in multivariaten Datenstrukturen.
  8. Nikolaus Hautsch & Lada M. Kyj & Roel C.A. Oomen, 2009. "A blocking and regularization approach to high dimensional realized covariance estimation," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2009-049, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  9. Bandi, Federico M. & Russell, Jeffrey R., 2006. "Separating microstructure noise from volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 655-692, March.
  10. Fulvio Corsi & Francesco Audrino, 2007. "Realized Correlation Tick-by-Tick," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2007 2007-02, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
  11. Takaki Hayashi & Shigeo Kusuoka, 2008. "Consistent estimation of covariation under nonsynchronicity," Statistical Inference for Stochastic Processes, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 93-106, February.
  12. Andersen, Torben G & Bollerslev, Tim, 1998. "Answering the Skeptics: Yes, Standard Volatility Models Do Provide Accurate Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 885-905, November.
  13. Valeri Voev & Asger Lunde, 2007. "Integrated Covariance Estimation using High-frequency Data in the Presence of Noise," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 5(1), pages 68-104.
  14. Oomen, Roel C.A., 2006. "Properties of Realized Variance Under Alternative Sampling Schemes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 219-237, April.
  15. Nijman, T.E. & de Jong, F.C.J.M., 1997. "High frequency analysis of lead-lag relationships between financial markets," Other publications TiSEM f4f406a0-771a-4af2-9364-6, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  16. Bollerslev, Tim & Zhang, Benjamin Y. B., 2003. "Measuring and modeling systematic risk in factor pricing models using high-frequency data," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 533-558, December.
  17. Qianqiu Liu, 2009. "On portfolio optimization: How and when do we benefit from high-frequency data?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(4), pages 560-582.
  18. Jim Griffin & Roel Oomen, 2008. "Sampling Returns for Realized Variance Calculations: Tick Time or Transaction Time?," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1-3), pages 230-253.
  19. Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen & Neil Shephard, 2000. "Econometric analysis of realised volatility and its use in estimating stochastic volatility models," Economics Papers 2001-W4, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford, revised 05 Jul 2001.
  20. Cohen, Kalman J. & Hawawini, Gabriel A. & Maier, Steven F. & Schwartz, Robert A. & Whitcomb, David K., 1983. "Friction in the trading process and the estimation of systematic risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 263-278, August.
  21. Takaki Hayashi & Nakahiro Yoshida, 2008. "Asymptotic normality of a covariance estimator for nonsynchronously observed diffusion processes," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer;The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, vol. 60(2), pages 367-406, June.
  22. Zhou, Bin, 1996. "High-Frequency Data and Volatility in Foreign-Exchange Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 14(1), pages 45-52, January.
  23. Jim Gatheral & Roel Oomen, 2010. "Zero-intelligence realized variance estimation," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 249-283, April.
  24. Dimson, Elroy, 1979. "Risk measurement when shares are subject to infrequent trading," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 197-226, June.
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