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Levels, Differences and ECMs - Principles for Improved Econometric Forecasting


  • P. Geoffrey Allen
  • Robert Fildes


Unit-root testing can be a preliminary step in model development, an intermediate step, or an end in itself. Some researchers have questioned the value of any unit-root and cointegration testing, arguing that restrictions based on theory are at least as effective. Such confusion is unsatisfactory. Needed is a set of principles that limit and define the role of the tacit knowledge of the model builders. In a forecasting context, we enumerate the various possible model selection strategies and, based on simulation and empirical evidence, recommend using these tests to improve the specification of an initial general vector autoregression model. Copyright 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • P. Geoffrey Allen & Robert Fildes, 2005. "Levels, Differences and ECMs - Principles for Improved Econometric Forecasting," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 67(s1), pages 881-904, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:obuest:v:67:y:2005:i:s1:p:881-904

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David F. Hendry & Hans-Martin Krolzig, 2005. "The Properties of Automatic "GETS" Modelling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(502), pages C32-C61, 03.
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    Cited by:

    1. Castle, Jennifer L. & Clements, Michael P. & Hendry, David F., 2015. "Robust approaches to forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 99-112.
    2. Ericsson, Neil R., 2017. "Economic forecasting in theory and practice: An interview with David F. Hendry," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 523-542.
    3. Moosa, Imad A. & Vaz, John J., 2016. "Cointegration, error correction and exchange rate forecasting," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 21-34.
    4. Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2009. "Modeling the Impact of Real and Financial Shocks on Mercosur: The Role of the Exchange Rate Regime," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 359-384, July.
    5. Fildes, Robert & Wei, Yingqi & Ismail, Suzilah, 2011. "Evaluating the forecasting performance of econometric models of air passenger traffic flows using multiple error measures," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 902-922, July.
    6. Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2006. "Disentabling business cycles and macroeconomic policy in Mercosur: a VAR and unobserved components model approaches," Post-Print halshs-00262366, HAL.
    7. James G. Baldwin & Ian Sue Wing, 2013. "The Spatiotemporal Evolution Of U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Stylized Facts And Implications For Climate Policy," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(4), pages 672-689, October.
    8. Abdullahi Ahmed & Enjiang Cheng & George Messinis, 2011. "The role of exports, FDI and imports in development: evidence from Sub-Saharan African countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(26), pages 3719-3731.
    9. Todd E. Clark & Michael W. McCracken, 2006. "Forecasting of small macroeconomic VARs in the presence of instabilities," Research Working Paper RWP 06-09, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    10. repec:pal:jorsoc:v:59:y:2008:i:9:d:10.1057_palgrave.jors.2602597 is not listed on IDEAS

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