Evaluating the forecasting performance of econometric models of air passenger traffic flows using multiple error measures
Airline traffic forecasting is important to airlines and regulatory authorities. This paper examines a number of approaches to forecasting short- to medium-term air traffic flows. It contributes as a rare replication, testing a variety of alternative modelling approaches. The econometric models employed include autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) models, time-varying parameter (TVP) models and an automatic method for econometric model specification. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model and various univariate alternatives are also included to deliver unconditional forecast comparisons. Various approaches for taking into account interactions between contemporaneous air traffic flows are examined, including pooled ADL models and the enhanced models with the addition of a "world trade" variable. Based on the analysis of a number of forecasting error measures, it is concluded that pooled ADL models that include the "world trade" variable outperform the alternatives, and in particular univariate methods; and, second, that automatic modelling procedures are enhanced through judgmental intervention. In contrast to earlier results, the TVP models do not improve accuracy. Depending on the preferred error measure, the difference in accuracy may be substantial.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- George Athanasopoulos & Rob J Hyndman & Haiyan Song & Doris C Wu, 2008.
"The tourism forecasting competition,"
Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers
10/08, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics, revised Oct 2009.
- Athanasopoulos, George & Hyndman, Rob J. & Song, Haiyan & Wu, Doris C., 2011. "The tourism forecasting competition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 822-844.
- Athanasopoulos, George & Hyndman, Rob J. & Song, Haiyan & Wu, Doris C., 2011. "The tourism forecasting competition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 822-844, July.
- Riddington, GL, 1993. "Time varying coefficient models and their forecasting performance," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 573-583, September.
- Garcia-Ferrer, Antonio, et al, 1987. "Macroeconomic Forecasting Using Pooled International Data," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 5(1), pages 53-67, January.
- Fildes, Robert, 1992. "The evaluation of extrapolative forecasting methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 81-98, June.
- Harvey, David & Leybourne, Stephen & Newbold, Paul, 1997. "Testing the equality of prediction mean squared errors," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 281-291, June.
- Clements,Michael & Hendry,David, 1998.
"Forecasting Economic Time Series,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521632423, December.
- Carlo Favero & Massimiliano Marcellino, 2005.
"Modelling and Forecasting Fiscal Variables for the Euro Area,"
298, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Carlo A. Favero & Massimiliano Marcellino, 2005. "Modelling and Forecasting Fiscal Variables for the Euro Area," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 67(s1), pages 755-783, December.
- Favero, Carlo A. & Marcellino, Massimiliano, 2005. "Modelling and Forecasting Fiscal Variables for the euro Area," CEPR Discussion Papers 5294, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Rob J. Hyndman & Anne B. Koehler, 2005.
"Another Look at Measures of Forecast Accuracy,"
Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers
13/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
- Matsumoto, Hidenobu, 2004. "International urban systems and air passenger and cargo flows: some calculations," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 239-247.
- Armstrong, J. Scott, 2007. "Significance tests harm progress in forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 321-327.
- Pagan, Adrian, 1987. " Three Econometric Methodologies: A Critical Appraisal," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(1), pages 3-24.
- Li, Gang & Song, Haiyan & Witt, Stephen F., 2006. "Time varying parameter and fixed parameter linear AIDS: An application to tourism demand forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 57-71.
- Nenad Njegovan, 2006. "Are Shocks to Air Passenger Traffic Permanent or Transitory? Implications for Long-Term Air Passenger Forecasts for the UK," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 40(2), pages 315-328, May.
- Fridström, Lasse & Thune-Larsen, Harald, 1989. "An econometric air travel demand model for the entire conventional domestic network: The case of Norway," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 213-223, June.
- Hubbard, Raymond & Vetter, Daniel E., 1996. "An empirical comparison of published replication research in accounting, economics, finance, management, and marketing," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 153-164, February.
- P. Geoffrey Allen & Robert Fildes, 2005. "Levels, Differences and ECMs - Principles for Improved Econometric Forecasting," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 67(s1), pages 881-904, December.
- Zellner, Arnold & Hong, Chansik & Min, Chung-ki, 1991. "Forecasting turning points in international output growth rates using Bayesian exponentially weighted autoregression, time-varying parameter, and pooling techniques," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1-2), pages 275-304.
- Min, Chung-ki & Zellner, Arnold, 1993.
"Bayesian and non-Bayesian methods for combining models and forecasts with applications to forecasting international growth rates,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 56(1-2), pages 89-118, March.
- Min, C.K. & Zellner, A., 1992. ""Bayesian and Non-Bayesian Methods for Combining Models and Forecasts with Applications to Forecasting International Growth Rates"," Papers 90-92-23, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Abed, Seraj Y. & Ba-Fail, Abdullah O. & Jasimuddin, Sajjad M., 2001. "An econometric analysis of international air travel demand in Saudi Arabia," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 143-148.
- Scott Blunk & David Clark & James McGibany, 2006. "Evaluating the long-run impacts of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on US domestic airline travel," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 363-370.
- Grubb, Howard & Mason, Alexina, 2001. "Long lead-time forecasting of UK air passengers by Holt-Winters methods with damped trend," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 71-82.
- du Preez, Johann & Witt, Stephen F., 2003. "Univariate versus multivariate time series forecasting: an application to international tourism demand," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 435-451.
- Siem Jan Koopman & Neil Shephard & Jurgen A. Doornik, 1999.
"Statistical algorithms for models in state space using SsfPack 2.2,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 2(1), pages 107-160.
- Koopman, S.J.M. & Shephard, N. & Doornik, J.A., 1998. "Statistical Algorithms for Models in State Space Using SsfPack 2.2," Discussion Paper 1998-141, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Lai, Sue Ling & Lu, Whei-Li, 2005. "Impact analysis of September 11 on air travel demand in the USA," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(6), pages 455-458.
- Jorge-CalderÃ³n, J.D., 1997. "A demand model for scheduled airline services on international European routes," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 23-35.
- Anderson, James E & Kraus, Marvin, 1981. "Quality of Service and the Demand for Air Travel," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(4), pages 533-40, November.
- Goodrich, Robert L., 2000. "The Forecast Pro methodology," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 533-535.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:27:y::i:3:p:902-922. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.