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A Brief History of Forecasting Competitions

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  • Rob J Hyndman

Abstract

Forecasting competitions are now so widespread that it is often forgotten how controversial they were when first held, and how influential they have been over the years. I briefly review the history of forecasting competitions, and discuss what we have learned about their design and implementation, and what they can tell us about forecasting. I also provide a few suggestions for potential future competitions, and for research about forecasting based on competitions.

Suggested Citation

  • Rob J Hyndman, 2019. "A Brief History of Forecasting Competitions," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/19, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  • Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2019-3
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    File URL: https://www.monash.edu/business/ebs/research/publications/ebs/wp03-2019.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Makridakis, Spyros & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2022. "Predicting/hypothesizing the findings of the M5 competition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1337-1345.
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    5. Erick Inácio Ferreira & Igor Viveiros Melo Souza, 2023. "Time series forecasting : a test of automated econometric methods," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG 661, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
    6. Wellens, Arnoud P. & Boute, Robert N. & Udenio, Maximiliano, 2024. "Simplifying tree-based methods for retail sales forecasting with explanatory variables," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 314(2), pages 523-539.
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    9. Spyros Makridakis & Chris Fry & Fotios Petropoulos & Evangelos Spiliotis, 2022. "The Future of Forecasting Competitions: Design Attributes and Principles," INFORMS Joural on Data Science, INFORMS, vol. 1(1), pages 96-113, April.
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    13. Jennifer L. Castle & Jurgen A. Doornik & David F. Hendry, 2021. "Forecasting Principles from Experience with Forecasting Competitions," Forecasting, MDPI, vol. 3(1), pages 1-28, February.
    14. Mamonov, Nikolay & Golubyatnikov, Evgeny & Kanevskiy, Daniel & Gusakov, Igor, 2022. "GoodsForecast second-place solution in M5 Uncertainty track: Combining heterogeneous models for a quantile estimation task," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1434-1441.
    15. Ulrich Gunter & Irem Önder & Egon Smeral, 2020. "Are Combined Tourism Forecasts Better at Minimizing Forecasting Errors?," Forecasting, MDPI, vol. 2(3), pages 1-19, June.
    16. Bojer, Casper Solheim & Meldgaard, Jens Peder, 2021. "Kaggle forecasting competitions: An overlooked learning opportunity," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 587-603.
    17. Makridakis, Spyros & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2022. "M5 accuracy competition: Results, findings, and conclusions," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1346-1364.
    18. Romanus, Eduardo E. & Silva, Eugênio & Goldschmidt, Ronaldo R., 2024. "Empirical probabilistic forecasting: An approach solely based on deterministic explanatory variables for the selection of past forecast errors," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 184-201.
    19. Wang, Xiaoqian & Hyndman, Rob J. & Li, Feng & Kang, Yanfei, 2023. "Forecast combinations: An over 50-year review," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 1518-1547.
    20. Kück, Mirko & Freitag, Michael, 2021. "Forecasting of customer demands for production planning by local k-nearest neighbor models," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 231(C).
    21. Makridakis, Spyros & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2022. "The M5 competition: Background, organization, and implementation," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1325-1336.
    22. Erol Eğrioğlu & Robert Fildes, 2022. "A New Bootstrapped Hybrid Artificial Neural Network Approach for Time Series Forecasting," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 59(4), pages 1355-1383, April.
    23. Theodorou, Evangelos & Wang, Shengjie & Kang, Yanfei & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Makridakis, Spyros & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2022. "Exploring the representativeness of the M5 competition data," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1500-1506.
    24. Makridakis, Spyros & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2020. "The M4 Competition: 100,000 time series and 61 forecasting methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 54-74.

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    Keywords

    evaluation; forecasting accuracy; Kaggle; M competitions; neural networks; prediction intervals; probability scoring; time series.;
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