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A Brief History of Forecasting Competitions

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  • Rob J Hyndman

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Abstract

Forecasting competitions are now so widespread that it is often forgotten how controversial they were when first held, and how influential they have been over the years. I briefly review the history of forecasting competitions, and discuss what we have learned about their design and implementation, and what they can tell us about forecasting. I also provide a few suggestions for potential future competitions, and for research about forecasting based on competitions.

Suggested Citation

  • Rob J Hyndman, 2019. "A Brief History of Forecasting Competitions," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/19, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  • Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2019-3
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    File URL: https://www.monash.edu/business/ebs/research/publications/ebs/wp03-2019.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Crone, Sven F. & Hibon, Michèle & Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, 2011. "Advances in forecasting with neural networks? Empirical evidence from the NN3 competition on time series prediction," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 635-660.
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    4. Athanasopoulos, George & Hyndman, Rob J., 2011. "The value of feedback in forecasting competitions," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 845-849.
    5. Ross Askanazi & Francis X. Diebold & Frank Schorfheide & Minchul Shin, 2018. "On the Comparison of Interval Forecasts," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(6), pages 953-965, November.
    6. Kang, Yanfei & Hyndman, Rob J. & Smith-Miles, Kate, 2017. "Visualising forecasting algorithm performance using time series instance spaces," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 345-358.
    7. Assimakopoulos, V. & Nikolopoulos, K., 2000. "The theta model: a decomposition approach to forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 521-530.
    8. Hong, Tao & Xie, Jingrui & Black, Jonathan, 2019. "Global energy forecasting competition 2017: Hierarchical probabilistic load forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1389-1399.
    9. Athanasopoulos, George & Hyndman, Rob J. & Song, Haiyan & Wu, Doris C., 2011. "The tourism forecasting competition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 822-844, July.
    10. Hong, Tao & Pinson, Pierre & Fan, Shu, 2014. "Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 357-363.
    11. Boylan, John E. & Goodwin, Paul & Mohammadipour, Maryam & Syntetos, Aris A., 2015. "Reproducibility in forecasting research," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 79-90.
    12. Makridakis, Spyros & Chatfield, Chris & Hibon, Michele & Lawrence, Michael & Mills, Terence & Ord, Keith & Simmons, LeRoy F., 1993. "The M2-competition: A real-time judgmentally based forecasting study," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 5-22, April.
    13. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B., 2006. "Another look at measures of forecast accuracy," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 679-688.
    14. Makridakis, Spyros & Hibon, Michele, 2000. "The M3-Competition: results, conclusions and implications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 451-476.
    15. Hong, Tao & Pinson, Pierre & Fan, Shu & Zareipour, Hamidreza & Troccoli, Alberto & Hyndman, Rob J., 2016. "Probabilistic energy forecasting: Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2014 and beyond," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 896-913.
    16. Hyndman, Rob J. & Billah, Baki, 2003. "Unmasking the Theta method," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 287-290.
    17. Evanschitzky, Heiner & Armstrong, J. Scott, 2010. "Replications of forecasting research," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 4-8, January.
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    19. Neil A. Gershenfeld & Andreas S. Weigend, 1993. "The Future of Time Series: Learning and Understanding," Working Papers 93-08-053, Santa Fe Institute.
    20. Spiliotis, Evangelos & Kouloumos, Andreas & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios & Makridakis, Spyros, 2020. "Are forecasting competitions data representative of the reality?," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 37-53.
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    Cited by:

    1. Galvao, Ana Beatriz & Garratt, Anthony & Mitchell, James, 2020. "Does Judgment Improve Macroeconomic Density Forecasts?," EMF Research Papers 33, Economic Modelling and Forecasting Group.
    2. Kück, Mirko & Freitag, Michael, 2021. "Forecasting of customer demands for production planning by local k-nearest neighbor models," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 231(C).
    3. Makridakis, Spyros & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2020. "The M4 Competition: 100,000 time series and 61 forecasting methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 54-74.
    4. Jennifer L. Castle & Jurgen A. Doornik & David F. Hendry, 2021. "Forecasting Principles from Experience with Forecasting Competitions," Forecasting, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(1), pages 1-28, February.
    5. Ulrich Gunter & Irem Önder & Egon Smeral, 2020. "Are Combined Tourism Forecasts Better at Minimizing Forecasting Errors?," Forecasting, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(3), pages 1-19, June.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    evaluation; forecasting accuracy; Kaggle; M competitions; neural networks; prediction intervals; probability scoring; time series.;
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