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Visualising forecasting Algorithm Performance using Time Series Instance Spaces

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  • Yanfei Kang
  • Rob J. Hyndman
  • Kate Smith-Miles

Abstract

It is common practice to evaluate the strength of forecasting methods using collections of well-studied time series datasets, such as the M3 data. But how diverse are these time series, how challenging, and do they enable us to study the unique strengths and weaknesses of different forecasting methods? In this paper we propose a visualisation method for a collection of time series that enables a time series to be represented as a point in a 2-dimensional instance space. The effectiveness of different forecasting methods can be visualised easily across this space, and the diversity of the time series in an existing collection can be assessed. Noting that the M3 dataset is not as diverse as we would ideally like, this paper also proposes a method for generating new time series with controllable characteristics to fill in and spread out the instance space, making generalisations of forecasting method performance as robust as possible.

Suggested Citation

  • Yanfei Kang & Rob J. Hyndman & Kate Smith-Miles, 2016. "Visualising forecasting Algorithm Performance using Time Series Instance Spaces," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 10/16, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  • Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2016-10
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hyndman, Rob J. & Khandakar, Yeasmin, 2008. "Automatic Time Series Forecasting: The forecast Package for R," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 27(i03).
    2. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B. & Snyder, Ralph D. & Grose, Simone, 2002. "A state space framework for automatic forecasting using exponential smoothing methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 439-454.
    3. Assimakopoulos, V. & Nikolopoulos, K., 2000. "The theta model: a decomposition approach to forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 521-530.
    4. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B., 2006. "Another look at measures of forecast accuracy," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 679-688.
    5. Makridakis, Spyros & Hibon, Michele, 2000. "The M3-Competition: results, conclusions and implications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 451-476.
    6. Maasoumi, Esfandiar & Racine, Jeff, 2002. "Entropy and predictability of stock market returns," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 107(1-2), pages 291-312, March.
    7. Petropoulos, Fotios & Makridakis, Spyros & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios & Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, 2014. "‘Horses for Courses’ in demand forecasting," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 237(1), pages 152-163.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Smyl, Slawek, 2020. "A hybrid method of exponential smoothing and recurrent neural networks for time series forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 75-85.
    2. Eckert, Florian & Hyndman, Rob J. & Panagiotelis, Anastasios, 2021. "Forecasting Swiss exports using Bayesian forecast reconciliation," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 291(2), pages 693-710.
    3. Li Li & Yanfei Kang & Feng Li, 2021. "Bayesian forecast combination using time-varying features," Papers 2108.02082, arXiv.org, revised Jun 2022.
    4. Semenoglou, Artemios-Anargyros & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Makridakis, Spyros & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2021. "Investigating the accuracy of cross-learning time series forecasting methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1072-1084.
    5. Hyndman, Rob J., 2020. "A brief history of forecasting competitions," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 7-14.
    6. Li Li & Yanfei Kang & Fotios Petropoulos & Feng Li, 2022. "Feature-based intermittent demand forecast combinations: bias, accuracy and inventory implications," Papers 2204.08283, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2022.
    7. Talagala, Thiyanga S. & Li, Feng & Kang, Yanfei, 2022. "FFORMPP: Feature-based forecast model performance prediction," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 920-943.
    8. Priyanga Dilini Talagala & Rob J Hyndman & Kate Smith-Miles, 2019. "Anomaly Detection in High Dimensional Data," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 20/19, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    9. Petropoulos, Fotios & Apiletti, Daniele & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios & Babai, Mohamed Zied & Barrow, Devon K. & Ben Taieb, Souhaib & Bergmeir, Christoph & Bessa, Ricardo J. & Bijak, Jakub & Boylan, Joh, 2022. "Forecasting: theory and practice," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 705-871.
      • Fotios Petropoulos & Daniele Apiletti & Vassilios Assimakopoulos & Mohamed Zied Babai & Devon K. Barrow & Souhaib Ben Taieb & Christoph Bergmeir & Ricardo J. Bessa & Jakub Bijak & John E. Boylan & Jet, 2020. "Forecasting: theory and practice," Papers 2012.03854, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2022.
    10. Montero-Manso, Pablo & Athanasopoulos, George & Hyndman, Rob J. & Talagala, Thiyanga S., 2020. "FFORMA: Feature-based forecast model averaging," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 86-92.
    11. Thiyanga S Talagala & Rob J Hyndman & George Athanasopoulos, 2018. "Meta-learning how to forecast time series," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 6/18, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    12. Kang, Yanfei & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Petropoulos, Fotios & Athiniotis, Nikolaos & Li, Feng & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2021. "Déjà vu: A data-centric forecasting approach through time series cross-similarity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 719-731.
    13. Sevvandi Kandanaarachchi & Mario A Munoz & Rob J Hyndman & Kate Smith-Miles, 2018. "On normalization and algorithm selection for unsupervised outlier detection," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 16/18, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    14. Spiliotis, Evangelos & Kouloumos, Andreas & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios & Makridakis, Spyros, 2020. "Are forecasting competitions data representative of the reality?," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 37-53.
    15. Yang, Dazhi & van der Meer, Dennis, 2021. "Post-processing in solar forecasting: Ten overarching thinking tools," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    16. Thiyanga S. Talagala & Feng Li & Yanfei Kang, 2019. "Feature-based Forecast-Model Performance Prediction," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 21/19, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    17. Priyanga Dilini Talagala & Rob J Hyndman & Kate Smith-Miles & Sevvandi Kandanaarachchi & Mario A Munoz, 2018. "Anomaly detection in streaming nonstationary temporal data," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 4/18, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    18. Webel, Karsten, 2022. "A review of some recent developments in the modelling and seasonal adjustment of infra-monthly time series," Discussion Papers 31/2022, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    19. Jennifer L. Castle & Jurgen A. Doornik & David F. Hendry, 2021. "Forecasting Principles from Experience with Forecasting Competitions," Forecasting, MDPI, vol. 3(1), pages 1-28, February.
    20. Bojer, Casper Solheim & Meldgaard, Jens Peder, 2021. "Kaggle forecasting competitions: An overlooked learning opportunity," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 587-603.
    21. Makridakis, Spyros & Spiliotis, Evangelos & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2018. "The M4 Competition: Results, findings, conclusion and way forward," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 802-808.
    22. Yanfei Kang & Rob J Hyndman & Feng Li, 2018. "Efficient generation of time series with diverse and controllable characteristics," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 15/18, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    23. Spiliotis, Evangelos & Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, 2019. "Tales from tails: On the empirical distributions of forecasting errors and their implication to risk," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 687-698.
    24. Huber, Jakob & Stuckenschmidt, Heiner, 2020. "Daily retail demand forecasting using machine learning with emphasis on calendric special days," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 1420-1438.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    M3-competition; time series visualisation; time series generation; forecasting algorithm comparison;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • C55 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis

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