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Unmasking the Theta Method

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  • Hyndman, R.J.

    ()

  • Billah, B.

Abstract

The Theta method of forecasting performed particularly well in the M3-competition and is therefore of interest to forecast practitioners. The description of the method given by Assimakopoulos and Nikolopoulos (2000) involves several pages of algebraic manipulation and is difficult to comprehend. We show that the method can be expressed much more simply; furthermore we show that the forecasts obtained are equivalent to simple exponential smoothing with drift.

Suggested Citation

  • Hyndman, R.J. & Billah, B., 2001. "Unmasking the Theta Method," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 5/01, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  • Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2001-5
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    File URL: http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/ebs/pubs/wpapers/2001/wp5-01.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B. & Snyder, Ralph D. & Grose, Simone, 2002. "A state space framework for automatic forecasting using exponential smoothing methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 439-454.
    2. Assimakopoulos, V. & Nikolopoulos, K., 2000. "The theta model: a decomposition approach to forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 521-530.
    3. Ord, J.K. & Koehler, A. & Snyder, R.D., 1995. "Estimation and Prediction for a Class of Dynamic Nonlinear Statistical Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 4/95, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    4. Makridakis, Spyros & Hibon, Michele, 2000. "The M3-Competition: results, conclusions and implications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 451-476.
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    Cited by:

    1. Barrow, Devon K. & Kourentzes, Nikolaos, 2016. "Distributions of forecasting errors of forecast combinations: Implications for inventory management," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 24-33.
    2. Petropoulos, Fotios & Makridakis, Spyros & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios & Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, 2014. "‘Horses for Courses’ in demand forecasting," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 237(1), pages 152-163.
    3. Athanasopoulos, George & Hyndman, Rob J. & Song, Haiyan & Wu, Doris C., 2011. "The tourism forecasting competition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 822-844.
    4. Gardner, Everette S., 2015. "Conservative forecasting with the damped trend," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(8), pages 1739-1741.
    5. Rob J Hyndman & Maxwell L. King & Ivet Pitrun & Baki Billah, 2002. "Local Linear Forecasts Using Cubic Smoothing Splines," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 10/02, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    6. Jan G. De Gooijer & Rob J. Hyndman, 2005. "25 Years of IIF Time Series Forecasting: A Selective Review," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 12/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    7. Fiorucci, Jose A. & Pellegrini, Tiago R. & Louzada, Francisco & Petropoulos, Fotios & Koehler, Anne B., 2016. "Models for optimising the theta method and their relationship to state space models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 1151-1161.
    8. Dimitrios D. Thomakos & Konstantinos Nikolopoulos, 2015. "Forecasting Multivariate Time Series with the Theta Method," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(3), pages 220-229, April.
    9. Weron, Rafał, 2014. "Electricity price forecasting: A review of the state-of-the-art with a look into the future," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1030-1081.
    10. Theodosiou, Marina, 2011. "Forecasting monthly and quarterly time series using STL decomposition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 1178-1195, October.
    11. Hyndman, Rob J. & Khandakar, Yeasmin, 2008. "Automatic Time Series Forecasting: The forecast Package for R," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 27(i03).
    12. De Gooijer, Jan G. & Hyndman, Rob J., 2006. "25 years of time series forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 443-473.
    13. Gardner Jr., Everette S. & Diaz-Saiz, Joaquin, 2008. "Exponential smoothing in the telecommunications data," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 170-174.
    14. Aviral Kumar Tiwari & Claudiu T Albulescu & Phouphet Kyophilavong, 2014. "A comparison of different forecasting models of the international trade in India," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(1), pages 420-429.
    15. Dean W. Wichern & Benito E. Flores, 2005. "Evaluating forecasts: a look at aggregate bias and accuracy measures," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(6), pages 433-451.
    16. G P Girish & Aviral Kumar Tiwari, 2016. "A comparison of different univariate forecasting models forSpot Electricity Price in India," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(2), pages 1039-1057.
    17. Fildes, Robert & Petropoulos, Fotios, 2015. "Simple versus complex selection rules for forecasting many time series," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(8), pages 1692-1701.
    18. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B., 2006. "Another look at measures of forecast accuracy," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 679-688.
    19. Gardner, Everette Jr., 2006. "Exponential smoothing: The state of the art--Part II," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 637-666.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    exponential smoothing; forecasting competitions; state space models;

    JEL classification:

    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods

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