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Estimation of returns to scale using data envelopment analysis

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  1. Tone, Kaoru & Sahoo, Biresh K., 2003. "Scale, indivisibilities and production function in data envelopment analysis," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 165-192, May.
  2. Krivonozhko, Vladimir E. & Førsund, Finn R. & Lychev, Andrey V., 2014. "Measurement of returns to scale using non-radial DEA models," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 232(3), pages 664-670.
  3. Toshiyuki Sueyoshi, 1999. "DEA Duality on Returns to Scale (RTS) in Production and Cost Analyses: An Occurrence of Multiple Solutions and Differences Between Production-Based and Cost-Based RTS Estimates," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(11), pages 1593-1608, November.
  4. Maragos, Elias K. & Maravelakis, Petros E. & Linardis, Apostolos I., 2021. "A DEA evaluation of the successful implementation of HEALTH2020 policies," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
  5. Sebastian Kohl & Jan Schoenfelder & Andreas Fügener & Jens O. Brunner, 2019. "The use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in healthcare with a focus on hospitals," Health Care Management Science, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 245-286, June.
  6. Mei Tao & Shanshan Lv & Shiqian Feng, 2023. "Study on the Evaluation of the Development Efficiency of Smart Mine Construction and the Influencing Factors Based on the US-SBM Model," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(6), pages 1-17, March.
  7. F R Førsund & L Hjalmarsson, 2004. "Calculating scale elasticity in DEA models," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 55(10), pages 1023-1038, October.
  8. Butler, Timothy W. & Li, Ling, 2005. "The utility of returns to scale in DEA programming: An analysis of Michigan rural hospitals," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 161(2), pages 469-477, March.
  9. Wang, Ying-Ming & Lan, Yi-Xin, 2013. "Estimating most productive scale size with double frontiers data envelopment analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 182-186.
  10. Victor V. Podinovski & Finn R. Førsund, 2010. "Differential Characteristics of Efficient Frontiers in Data Envelopment Analysis," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 58(6), pages 1743-1754, December.
  11. Amatatsu, Hirofumi & Ueda, Tohru, 2012. "Measurement of simultaneous scale and mix changes in inputs and outputs using DEA facets and RTS," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 223(3), pages 752-761.
  12. Beatrice Conradie & Jenifer Piesse, 2015. "Productivity benchmarking of free-range sheep operations for Laingsburg, South Africa," Agrekon, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(2), pages 1-17, June.
  13. Fei Choi & Chi Tin Hon & Yan Hua Mao & Ivan Ka Wai Lai, 2019. "Sustainable Development for Small Economy and Diversification from a Dominant Industry: Evidence from Macao," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(6), pages 1-17, March.
  14. Keh, Hean Tat & Chu, Singfat, 2003. "Retail productivity and scale economies at the firm level: a DEA approach," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 75-82, April.
  15. Shuji Yao & Zhongwei Han & Dan Luo, 2010. "Performance of the Chinese Insurance Industry under Economic Reforms," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12788.
  16. Löthgren, Mickael & Tambour, Magnus, 1996. "Alternative Approaches to Estimate Returns to Scale in DEA- Models," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 90, Stockholm School of Economics.
  17. da Silva, Aneirson Francisco & Miranda, Rafael de Carvalho & Marins, Fernando Augusto Silva & Dias, Erica Ximenes, 2024. "A new multiple criteria data envelopment analysis with variable return to scale: Applying bi-dimensional representation and super-efficiency analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 314(1), pages 308-322.
  18. Paradi, Joseph C. & Schaffnit, Claire, 2004. "Commercial branch performance evaluation and results communication in a Canadian bank--a DEA application," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 156(3), pages 719-735, August.
  19. Zelenyuk, Valentin, 2013. "A scale elasticity measure for directional distance function and its dual: Theory and DEA estimation," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 228(3), pages 592-600.
  20. Thanassoulis, Emmanuel, 2000. "DEA and its use in the regulation of water companies," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 127(1), pages 1-13, November.
  21. Dalina Dumitrescu & Ionela Costica & Liliana Nicoleta Simionescu & Stefan Cristian Gherghina, 2020. "DEA Approach Towards Exploring the Sustainability of Funding in Higher Education. Empirical Evidence from Romanian Public Universities," The AMFITEATRU ECONOMIC journal, Academy of Economic Studies - Bucharest, Romania, vol. 22(54), pages 593-593, April.
  22. Lawrence Seiford & Joe Zhu, 1999. "Sensitivity and Stability of the Classifications of Returns to Scale in Data Envelopment Analysis," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 55-75, August.
  23. Vladimir Krivonozhko & Finn Førsund & Andrey Lychev, 2015. "Terminal units in DEA: definition and determination," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 151-164, April.
  24. Andreas Soteriou & Stavros A. Zenios, 1999. "Operations, Quality, and Profitability in the Provision of Banking Services," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(9), pages 1221-1238, September.
  25. Soteriou, Andreas C. & Zenios, Stavros A., 1999. "Using data envelopment analysis for costing bank products," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 114(2), pages 234-248, April.
  26. Chandra, Pankaj & Cooper, William W. & Li, Shanling & Rahman, Atiqur, 1998. "Using DEA To evaluate 29 Canadian textile companies -- Considering returns to scale," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 129-141, January.
  27. Hyunjung Kim & Jiyoon Son, 2021. "Analyzing the Environmental Efficiency of Global Airlines by Continent for Sustainability," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(3), pages 1-16, February.
  28. Kenneth Løvold Rødseth & Paal Brevik Wangsness & Halvor Schøyen & Finn Ragnar Førsund, 2020. "Port efficiency and emissions from ships at berth: application to the Norwegian port sector," Maritime Economics & Logistics, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME), vol. 22(4), pages 585-609, December.
  29. Kerstens, Kristiaan & Vanden Eeckaut, Philippe, 1999. "Estimating returns to scale using non-parametric deterministic technologies: A new method based on goodness-of-fit," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 113(1), pages 206-214, February.
  30. Mostafa Omidi & Mohsen Rostamy-Malkhalifeh & Ali Payan & Farhad Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, 2019. "Estimation of Overall Returns to Scale (RTS) of a Frontier Unit Using the Left and Right RTS," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 53(2), pages 633-655, February.
  31. Khoshnevis, Pegah & Teirlinck, Peter, 2018. "Performance evaluation of R&D active firms," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 16-28.
  32. Avkiran, Necmi K., 2001. "Investigating technical and scale efficiencies of Australian Universities through data envelopment analysis," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 57-80, March.
  33. Olesen, Ole Bent & Petersen, Niels Christian, 2013. "Imposing the Regular Ultra Passum law in DEA models," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 16-27.
  34. Papaioannou, Grammatoula & Podinovski, Victor V., 2024. "A single-stage optimization procedure for data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 313(3), pages 1119-1128.
  35. Zhu, Joe, 2000. "Further discussion on linear production functions and DEA," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 127(3), pages 611-618, December.
  36. Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki & Sekitani, Kazuyuki, 2007. "The measurement of returns to scale under a simultaneous occurrence of multiple solutions in a reference set and a supporting hyperplane," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 181(2), pages 549-570, September.
  37. Subhash C. Ray, 2014. "Data Envelopment Analysis: An Overview," Working papers 2014-33, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  38. López, Francisco J., 2011. "Generalizing cross redundancy in data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 214(3), pages 716-721, November.
  39. Walheer, Barnabé, 2018. "Scale efficiency for multi-output cost minimizing producers: The case of the US electricity plants," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 26-36.
  40. Peter Bogetoft & Joseph M. Tama & Jørgen Tind, 2000. "Convex Input and Output Projections of Nonconvex Production Possibility Sets," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(6), pages 858-869, June.
  41. Lawrence M. Seiford & Joe Zhu, 1999. "Profitability and Marketability of the Top 55 U.S. Commercial Banks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(9), pages 1270-1288, September.
  42. Ming-Miin Yu, 2008. "Measuring the efficiency and return to scale status of multi-mode bus transit - evidence from Taiwan's bus system," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(8), pages 647-653.
  43. Ray, Subhash C, 2019. "The transformation function, technical efficiency, and the CCR ratio," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 278(2), pages 422-429.
  44. Sergio Destefanis, 2002. "The Verdoorn Law: Some Evidence from Non-Parametric Frontier Analysis," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: John McCombie & Maurizio Pugno & Bruno Soro (ed.), Productivity Growth and Economic Performance, chapter 6, pages 136-164, Palgrave Macmillan.
  45. K. Tone & M. Tsutsui, 2015. "How to Deal with Non-Convex Frontiers in Data Envelopment Analysis," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Springer, vol. 166(3), pages 1002-1028, September.
  46. Francesca Medda & Qianwen Liu, 2013. "Determinants and strategies for the development of container terminals," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 83-98, August.
  47. Lampe, Hannes W. & Hilgers, Dennis, 2015. "Trajectories of efficiency measurement: A bibliometric analysis of DEA and SFA," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 240(1), pages 1-21.
  48. Dhungana, Basanta R. & Nuthall, Peter L. & Nartea, Gilbert V., 2000. "Explaining Economic Inefficiency Of Nepalese Rice Farms: An Empirical Investigation," 2000 Conference (44th), January 23-25, 2000, Sydney, Australia 123630, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  49. Vladimir E. Krivonozhko & Finn R. Førsund & Andrey V. Lychev, 2017. "On comparison of different sets of units used for improving the frontier in DEA models," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 250(1), pages 5-20, March.
  50. Khem Sharma & Pingsun Leung & Halina Zaleski, 1997. "Productive Efficiency of the Swine Industry in Hawaii: Stochastic Frontier vs. Data Envelopment Analysis," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 447-459, November.
  51. Forsund, Finn R. & Sarafoglou, Nikias, 2005. "The tale of two research communities: The diffusion of research on productive efficiency," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 17-40, October.
  52. Chang, Kuo-Ping, 1997. "A note on "A discussion of testing DMUs' returns to scale" by Zhu and Shen European Journal of Operational Research 81 (1995) 590-596," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 597-599, March.
  53. Zelenyuk, Valentin, 2015. "Aggregation of scale efficiency," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 240(1), pages 269-277.
  54. Cheng, Xiaomei & Bjørndal, Endre & Bjørndal, Mette, 2015. "Optimal Scale in Different Environments – The Case of Norwegian Electricity Distribution Companies," Discussion Papers 2015/22, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
  55. Dyckhoff, H. & Allen, K., 2001. "Measuring ecological efficiency with data envelopment analysis (DEA)," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 132(2), pages 312-325, July.
  56. A. M. Theodoridis & A. Psychoudakis, 2008. "Efficiency Measurement in Greek Dairy Farms: Stochastic Frontier vs. Data Envelopment Analysis," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), International Hellenic University (IHU), Kavala Campus, Greece (formerly Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology - EMaTTech), vol. 1(2), pages 53-67, December.
  57. Zarepisheh, M. & Soleimani-damaneh, M., 2008. "Global variation of outputs with respect to the variation of inputs in performance analysis; generalized RTS," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 186(2), pages 786-800, April.
  58. H. Mesgarani & Y. Esmaeelzade Aghdam & A. Beiranvand & J. F. Gómez-Aguilar, 2024. "A Novel Approach to Fuzzy Based Efficiency Assessment of a Financial System," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 63(4), pages 1609-1626, April.
  59. Fukuyama, Hirofumi, 2000. "Returns to scale and scale elasticity in data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 125(1), pages 93-112, August.
  60. Ying-yu Lu & Yue He & Bo Wang & Shuang-shuang Ye & Yidi Hua & Lei Ding, 2019. "Efficiency Evaluation of Atmospheric Pollutants Emission in Zhejiang Province China: A DEA-Malmquist Based Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(17), pages 1-19, August.
  61. Panagiotis Ravanos & Giannis Karagiannis, 2022. "In search for the most preferred solution in value efficiency analysis," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 58(2), pages 203-220, December.
  62. Michael Zschille, 2014. "Nonparametric measures of returns to scale: an application to German water supply," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 1029-1053, November.
  63. Verspagen, Bart & Werker, Claudia, 2003. "The Invisible College of The Economics of Innovation and Technological Change," Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Estudios de Economia Aplicada, vol. 21, pages 393-419, December.
  64. Andreas Dellnitz & Madjid Tavana & Rajiv Banker, 2023. "A novel median-based optimization model for eco-efficiency assessment in data envelopment analysis," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 322(2), pages 661-690, March.
  65. Torben Schubert & Guoliang Yang, 2016. "Institutional change and the optimal size of universities," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 108(3), pages 1129-1153, September.
  66. Kaoru Tone & Miki Tsutsui, 2013. "How to deal with S-shaped curve in DEA," GRIPS Discussion Papers 13-10, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
  67. Norma & Saad & M. Shabri Abd. Majid & Salina Kassim & Zarinah Hamid & Rosylin Mohd. Yusof, 2010. "A comparative analysis of the performance of conventional and Islamic unit trust companies in Malaysia," International Journal of Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 6(1), pages 24-47, February.
  68. Yu, Gang & Wei, Quanling & Brockett, Patrick & Zhou, Li, 1996. "Construction of all DEA efficient surfaces of the production possibility set under the Generalized Data Envelopment Analysis Model," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 95(3), pages 491-510, December.
  69. Eulàlia Dalmau & Jaume Puig, 1997. "Market structure and hospital efficiency: Evaluating potential effects of deregulation in a national health service," Economics Working Papers 214, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  70. Miller, Stephen M. & Noulas, Athanasios G., 1996. "The technical efficiency of large bank production," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 495-509, April.
  71. Jens J. Krüger, 2017. "Revisiting the world technology frontier: a directional distance function approach," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 67-95, March.
  72. Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A. & Xie, Xiaoying & Zi, Hongmin, 2010. "Economies of scope in financial services: A DEA efficiency analysis of the US insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1525-1539, July.
  73. Chen, Chien-Ming, 2009. "A network-DEA model with new efficiency measures to incorporate the dynamic effect in production networks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 194(3), pages 687-699, May.
  74. Marques, Rui Cunha & De Witte, Kristof, 2011. "Is big better? On scale and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1009-1016, May.
  75. Førsund, Finn & Krivonozhko, Vladimir W & Lychev, Andrey V., 2016. "Smoothing the frontier in the DEA models," Memorandum 11/2016, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  76. Sedef E. Kara & Mustapha D. Ibrahim & Sahand Daneshvar, 2021. "Dual Efficiency and Productivity Analysis of Renewable Energy Alternatives of OECD Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(13), pages 1-14, July.
  77. Mehdiloo, Mahmood & Podinovski, Victor V., 2019. "Selective strong and weak disposability in efficiency analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 276(3), pages 1154-1169.
  78. Schaffnit, Claire & Rosen, Dan & Paradi, Joseph C., 1997. "Best practice analysis of bank branches: An application of DEA in a large Canadian bank," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 269-289, April.
  79. Cesaroni, Giovanni & Kerstens, Kristiaan & Van de Woestyne, Ignace, 2017. "Global and local scale characteristics in convex and nonconvex nonparametric technologies: A first empirical exploration," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 259(2), pages 576-586.
  80. AT Flegg & DO Allen & K Field & TW Thurlow, 2003. "Measuring the Efficiency and Productivity of British Universities: An Application of DEA and the Malmquist Approach," Working Papers 0304, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
  81. Garcia-Cestona, Miguel & Surroca, Jordi, 2008. "Multiple goals and ownership structure: Effects on the performance of Spanish savings banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 187(2), pages 582-599, June.
  82. Reuben Elan & Verma Bharat Bhushan & Bhat Ramesh, 2001. "Hospital Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis of District and Grant-in-Aid Hospitals in Gujarat," IIMA Working Papers WP2001-07-05, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department.
  83. Manuel Meireles & Cida Sanches & Samuel Ferreira & José Osvaldo De Sordi & Givaldo Santos, 2016. "Social Efficiency of For-profit Organizations in Brazil: An Empirical Analysis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 128(2), pages 909-928, September.
  84. Fukuyama, Hirofumi, 2003. "Scale characterizations in a DEA directional technology distance function framework," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 144(1), pages 108-127, January.
  85. Kaoru Tone, 2001. "On Returns to Scale under Weight Restrictions in Data Envelopment Analysis," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 31-47, July.
  86. Ole Bent Olesen & Niels Christian Petersen & Victor V. Podinovski, 2022. "Scale characteristics of variable returns-to-scale production technologies with ratio inputs and outputs," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 318(1), pages 383-423, November.
  87. Sang-Lyul Ryu & Jayoun Won, 2022. "The Value Relevance of Operational Innovation: Insights from the Perspective of Firm Life Cycle," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-18, February.
  88. Kaoru Tone & Biresh Sahoo, 2006. "Re-examining scale elasticity in DEA," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 145(1), pages 69-87, July.
  89. Golany, Boaz & Thore, Sten, 1997. "The Economic and Social Performance of Nations: Efficiency and Returns to Scale," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 191-204, September.
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  91. William Cooper & Kyung Park & Jesus Pastor, 1999. "RAM: A Range Adjusted Measure of Inefficiency for Use with Additive Models, and Relations to Other Models and Measures in DEA," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 5-42, February.
  92. Christopher F. Parmeter & Valentin Zelenyuk, 2019. "Combining the Virtues of Stochastic Frontier and Data Envelopment Analysis," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 67(6), pages 1628-1658, November.
  93. Wei, Quanling & Yan, Hong, 2004. "Congestion and returns to scale in data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 153(3), pages 641-660, March.
  94. Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki, 1998. "Privatization of nippon telegraph and telephone: Was it a good policy decision?," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 107(1), pages 45-61, May.
  95. M. Zarepisheh & E. Khorram & G. Jahanshahloo, 2010. "Returns to scale in multiplicative models in data envelopment analysis," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 173(1), pages 195-206, January.
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  116. Eulàlia Dalmau & Jaume Puig, 1997. "Market structure and hospital efficiency: Evaluating potential effects of deregulation in a national health service," Working Papers, Research Center on Health and Economics 214, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  117. M. Soleimani-damaneh, 2013. "Another approach for estimating RTS in dynamic DEA," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 75-81, February.
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  119. Dan Rosen & Claire Schaffnit & Joseph Paradi, 1998. "Marginal Rates and Two-dimensional Level Curves in DEA," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 205-232, March.
  120. Cevdet Denizer & Mustafa Dinc & Murat Tarimcilar, 2007. "Financial liberalization and banking efficiency: evidence from Turkey," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 177-195, June.
  121. Chia-Yen Lee, 2017. "Directional marginal productivity: a foundation of meta-data envelopment analysis," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 68(5), pages 544-555, May.
  122. Petros Hadjicostas & Andreas Soteriou, 2010. "Different orders of one-sided scale elasticities in multi-output production," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 147-167, April.
  123. V E Krivonozhko & O B Utkin & A V Volodin & I A Sablin & M Patrin, 2004. "Constructions of economic functions and calculations of marginal rates in DEA using parametric optimization methods," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 55(10), pages 1049-1058, October.
  124. Fernando Gascón & Jesús Lozano & Borja Ponte & David Fuente, 2017. "Measuring the efficiency of large pharmaceutical companies: an industry analysis," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 18(5), pages 587-608, June.
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  126. Zheng Fei & Li L. Z, 2018. "The Analysis for the Scale and Efficiency of China¡¯s Major Automotive Enterprises Based on DEA Model," Journal of Mathematics Research, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 10(2), pages 129-139, April.
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