IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/4900.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

International migration and gender differentials in the home labor market : evidence from Albania

Author

Listed:
  • Mendola, Mariapia
  • Carletto, Gero

Abstract

This paper examines the role of male-dominated international migration in shaping labor market outcomes by gender in migrant-sending households in Albania. Using detailed information on family migration experience from the latest Living Standards Measurement Study survey, the authors find that male and female labor supplies respond differently to the current and past migration episodes of household members. Controlling for the potential endogeneity of migration and for the income (remittances) effect, the estimates show that having a migrant abroad decreases female paid labor supply and increases unpaid work. However, women with past family migration experience are significantly more likely to engage in self-employment and less likely to supply unpaid work. The same relationships do not hold for men. These findings suggest that over time male-dominated Albanian migration may lead to women's empowerment in access to income-earning opportunities at the origin.

Suggested Citation

  • Mendola, Mariapia & Carletto, Gero, 2009. "International migration and gender differentials in the home labor market : evidence from Albania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4900, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4900
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/04/14/000158349_20090414093427/Rendered/PDF/WPS4900.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
    2. Mehra, Rekha & Gammage, Sarah, 1999. "Trends, Countertrends, and Gaps in Women's Employment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 533-550, March.
    3. Talip Kilic & Calogero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zezza, 2009. "Investing back home Return migration and business ownership in Albania1," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(3), pages 587-623, July.
    4. M. Anne Hill, 1989. "Female Labor Supply in Japan: Implications of the Informal Sector for Labor Force Participation and Hours of Work," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(1), pages 143-161.
    5. Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204, Elsevier.
    6. Peter Sanfey & Harry Papapanagos, 2001. "Intention to emigrate in transition countries: the case of Albania," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 14(3), pages 491-504.
    7. Paolo Verme, 2000. "The Choice of the Working Secto in Transition: Income and non‐income determinants of sector participation in Kazakhstan," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 8(3), pages 691-731, November.
    8. Huffman, Wallace E & Lange, Mark D, 1989. "Off-Farm Work Decisions of Husbands and Wives: Joint Decision Making," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(3), pages 471-480, August.
    9. Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Susan Pozo, 2006. "Migration, Remittances, and Male and Female Employment Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 222-226, May.
    10. Moffitt, Robert A., 1999. "New developments in econometric methods for labor market analysis," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 24, pages 1367-1397, Elsevier.
    11. Nancy McCarthy & Calogero Carletto & Talip Kilic & Benjamin Davis, 2009. "Assessing the Impact of Massive Out-Migration on Albanian Agriculture," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 21(3), pages 448-470, July.
    12. Jorge Durand & William Kandel & Emilio Parrado & Douglas Massey, 1996. "International migration and development in mexican communities," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 33(2), pages 249-264, May.
    13. Schultz, T Paul, 1990. "Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 457-488, April.
    14. Altonji, Joseph G. & Blank, Rebecca M., 1999. "Race and gender in the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 48, pages 3143-3259, Elsevier.
    15. Germano Mwabu & Robert Evenson, 1997. "A Model of Occupational Choice Applied to Rural Kenya," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 9(2), pages 1-14.
    16. Alejandra Cox Edwards & Manuelita Ureta, 2003. "International Migration, Remittances, and Schooling: Evidence from El Salvador," NBER Working Papers 9766, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Esther Duflo & Christopher Udry, 2003. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Côte D'ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices," Working Papers 857, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    18. Etleva Germenji & Johan Swinnen, 2005. "Human Capital, Market Imperfections, Poverty, and Migration: Evidence from Albania," LICOS Discussion Papers 15705, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    19. HwaJung Choi, 2007. "Are Remittances Insurance? Evidence from Rainfall Shocks in the Philippines," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank, vol. 21(2), pages 219-248, May.
    20. Oded Stark, 1991. "The Migration of Labor," Blackwell Books, Wiley Blackwell, number 1557860300, March.
    21. Dustmann, Christian & Kirchkamp, Oliver, 2002. "The optimal migration duration and activity choice after re-migration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 351-372, April.
    22. Raquel Fernández & Alessandra Fogli & Claudia Olivetti, 2004. "Mothers and Sons: Preference Formation and Female Labor Force Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 119(4), pages 1249-1299.
    23. Didier Soopramanien & Geraint Johnes, 2001. "A New Look at Gender Effects in Participation and Occupation Choice," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 15(3), pages 415-443, September.
    24. Hanson, Gordon H., 2007. "Emigration, Remittances and Labor Force Participation in Mexico," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 2637, Inter-American Development Bank.
    25. Claudia Olivetti & Stefania Albanesi, 2005. "Home Production, Market Production and the Gender Wage Gap: Incentives and Expectations," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2005-013, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    26. Joyce J. Chen, 2006. "Migration and Imperfect Monitoring: Implications for Intra-Household Allocation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 227-231, May.
    27. Lundberg, Shelly & Pollak, Robert A, 1993. "Separate Spheres Bargaining and the Marriage Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(6), pages 988-1010, December.
    28. Pencavel, John, 1987. "Labor supply of men: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 3-102, Elsevier.
    29. Rachel Connelly, 1992. "Self-employment and providing child care," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 29(1), pages 17-29, February.
    30. Oded Stark & J. Taylor, 1989. "Relative deprivation and international migration oded stark," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 26(1), pages 1-14, February.
    31. Richard U. Agesa & Sunwoong Kim, 2001. "Rural to Urban Migration as a Household Decision: Evidence from Kenya," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 60-75, February.
    32. repec:hal:wpspec:info:hdl:2441/9081 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. James P. Smith, 2005. "Female Labor Supply: Theory and Estimation -- Introduction," Labor and Demography 0501007, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    34. Funkhouser, Edward, 1992. "Migration from Nicaragua: some recent evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1209-1218, August.
    35. Augustin Coulon & Matloob Piracha, 2005. "Self-selection and the performance of return migrants: the source country perspective," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(4), pages 779-807, November.
    36. repec:hal:spmain:info:hdl:2441/9081 is not listed on IDEAS
    37. World Bank & World Bank, 2003. "Albania : Poverty Assessment," World Bank Publications - Reports 14605, The World Bank Group.
    38. Heckman, James J, 1993. "What Has Been Learned about Labor Supply in the Past Twenty Years?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 116-121, May.
    39. Tiefenthaler, Jill, 1994. "A Multisector Model of Female Labor Force Participation: Empirical Evidence from Cebu Island, Philippines," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(4), pages 719-742, July.
    40. Edwards, Alejandra Cox & Ureta, Manuelita, 2003. "International migration, remittances, and schooling: evidence from El Salvador," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 429-461, December.
    41. Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-694, July.
    42. Lucas, Robert E B, 1987. "Emigration to South Africa's Mines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 313-330, June.
    43. Lokshin, Michael & Glinskaya, Elena, 2008. "The effect of male migration for work on employment patterns of females in nepal," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4757, The World Bank.
    44. Catherine Y. Co & Ira N. Gang & Myeong-Su Yun, 2000. "Returns to returning," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 57-79.
    45. Kaivan Munshi & Mark Rosenzweig, 2006. "Traditional Institutions Meet the Modern World: Caste, Gender, and Schooling Choice in a Globalizing Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1225-1252, September.
    46. Gordon H. Hanson, 2007. "Emigration, Remittances and Labor Force Participation in Mexico," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 9371, Inter-American Development Bank.
    47. Mendola, Mariapia, 2008. "Migration and technological change in rural households: Complements or substitutes?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 150-175, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Mazhar Mughal & Farid Makhlouf, 2013. "Labour effects of foreign and domestic remittances -- evidence from Pakistan," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(6), pages 798-821, November.
    2. Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq & Sharif, Iffath & Shrestha, Maheshwor, 2021. "Returns to International Migration: Evidence from a Bangladesh-Malaysia Visa Lottery," IZA Discussion Papers 14232, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Paul, Saumik, 2018. "The Effect of Emigration on Household Labor Supply: Evidence from Central Asia and South Caucasus," ADBI Working Papers 822, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    4. Calogero Carletto & Jennica Larrison & Çaglar Özden, 2014. "Informing migration policies: a data primer," Chapters, in: Robert E.B. Lucas (ed.), International Handbook on Migration and Economic Development, chapter 2, pages 9-41, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Gröger, André, 2021. "Easy come, easy go? Economic shocks, labor migration and the family left behind," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    6. Sylvie Démurger & Shi Li, 2013. "Migration, Remittances, and Rural Employment Patterns: Evidence from China," Research in Labor Economics, in: Labor Market Issues in China, pages 31-63, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
    7. Murakami, Enerelt & Yamada, Eiji & Sioson, Erica Paula, 2021. "The impact of migration and remittances on labor supply in Tajikistan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    8. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00744438 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Francisca M. Antman, 2013. "The impact of migration on family left behind," Chapters, in: Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 16, pages 293-308, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    10. Mahé, Clothilde & Naudé, Wim, 2016. "Migration, occupation and education: Evidence from Ghana," MERIT Working Papers 2016-018, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    11. Corrado Giulietti & Jackline Wahba & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2013. "Entrepreneurship of the Left-Behind," Research in Labor Economics, in: Labor Market Issues in China, pages 65-92, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
    12. Mu, Ren & van de Walle, Dominique, 2011. "Left behind to farm? Women's labor re-allocation in rural China," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 83-97.
    13. Kamalbek Karymshakov & Burulcha Sulaimanova, 2017. "Migration impact on left-behind women’s labour participation and time-use: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," WIDER Working Paper Series 119, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. de Brauw, Alan, 2018. "Rural-urban migration and implications for rural production," Bio-based and Applied Economics Journal, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA), vol. 6(3), March.
    15. Gagnon, Jason, 2010. "“Stay with Us”? The Impact of Emigration on Wages in Honduras," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 57, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
    16. Dritan Shoraj & Leontiev Çuçi, 2013. "Effectiveness Of Remittances In Improving The Well-Being Of Albanian Families," Romanian Economic Business Review, Romanian-American University, vol. 8(3), pages 98-110, September.
    17. Piracha, Matloob & Vadean, Florin, 2010. "Return Migration and Occupational Choice: Evidence from Albania," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 1141-1155, August.
    18. Hien, Nguyen Thi Thu, 2019. "Consequences of urban migration of adult children for the elderly left-behind in rural Vietnam," OSF Preprints zxyf8, Center for Open Science.
    19. Binzel, Christine & Assaad, Ragui, 2011. "Egyptian men working abroad: Labour supply responses by the women left behind," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 98-114.
    20. Martin Kahanec, 2015. "Labour market impacts of post-enlargement migration on hosts and stayers in EU labour markets," Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, , vol. 21(3), pages 359-372, August.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mendola, Mariapia & Carletto, Calogero, 2012. "Migration and gender differences in the home labour market: Evidence from Albania," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 870-880.
    2. Azzari, Carlo & Carletto, Calogero & Davis, Benjamin & Zezza, Alberto, 2006. "Choosing to migrate or migrating to choose: migration and labour choice in Albania," ESA Working Papers 289061, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA).
    3. Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frederic, 2006. "The Economics of Migrants' Remittances," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, in: S. Kolm & Jean Mercier Ythier (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 17, pages 1135-1198, Elsevier.
    4. Dean Yang, 2009. "International Migration and Human Development," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2009-29, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), revised Jul 2009.
    5. De Paoli, Anna & Mendola, Mariapia, 2014. "International Labor Mobility and Child Work in Developing Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 8066, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Laurent Bossavie & Çağlar Özden, 2023. "Impacts of Temporary Migration on Development in Origin Countries," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 38(2), pages 249-294.
    7. Acosta, Pablo A. & Lartey, Emmanuel K.K. & Mandelman, Federico S., 2009. "Remittances and the Dutch disease," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 102-116, September.
    8. Matthieu Delpierre, 2012. "The impact of liquidity constraints and imperfect commitment on migration decisions of offspring of rural households," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 153-170, March.
    9. Seidu, Ayuba & Onel, Gulcan & Moss, Charles Britt, 2018. "Impact of International Remittance on Out-Farm Labor Migration in Developing Countries: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," 2018 Annual Meeting, February 2-6, 2018, Jacksonville, Florida 266531, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    10. Filiz Garip, 2014. "The Impact of Migration and Remittances on Wealth Accumulation and Distribution in Rural Thailand," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(2), pages 673-698, April.
    11. Sèna Kimm Gnangnon, 2020. "Development aid, remittances inflows and wages in the manufacturing sector," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 22(2), pages 278-304, December.
    12. Lisa Pfeiffer & Alejandro López‐Feldman & J. Edward Taylor, 2009. "Is off‐farm income reforming the farm? Evidence from Mexico," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 125-138, March.
    13. Murard, Elie, 2019. "The Impact of Migration on Family Left Behind: Estimation in Presence of Intra-Household Selection of Migrants," IZA Discussion Papers 12094, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Carlo Azzarri & Calogero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zazza, 2008. "Migration and Labour Choice in Albania," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 6(2), pages 169-196.
    15. Dean Yang, 2008. "International Migration, Remittances and Household Investment: Evidence from Philippine Migrants' Exchange Rate Shocks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(528), pages 591-630, April.
    16. Robert E.B. Lucas, 2007. "Migration and rural development," The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, vol. 4(1), pages 99-122.
    17. Nancy McCarthy & Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Irini Maltsoglou, 2006. "Assessing the Impact of Massive Out-Migration on Agriculture," Working Papers 06-14, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
    18. Kalaj, Ermira Hoxha, 2010. "Remittances and Human Capital Investment: Evidence from Albania," MPRA Paper 49210, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Christian Dustmann & Joseph-Simon Görlach, 2016. "The Economics of Temporary Migrations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 54(1), pages 98-136, March.
    20. I-Ling Shen & Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2010. "Remittances and inequality: a dynamic migration model," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 8(2), pages 197-220, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Labor Markets; Population Policies; Labor Policies; Access to Finance; Gender and Development;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4900. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Roula I. Yazigi (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.