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Pesticide safety risk, food chain organization, and the adoption of sustainable farming practices. The case of Moroccan early tomatoes

  • Aubert, M.
  • Bouhsina, Z.
  • Codron, J.M.
  • Rousset, S.

Fresh produce pesticide safety risk has grown into a major concern of North European consumers and governments for the last twenty years. Our study expands on safety control issues and gives insights into how fresh vegetable chains organize to comply with retail private safety standards and thus get access to export and modern domestic markets. Most studies on the adoption of good agricultural practice certifications and integrated pest management overlook the influence of food chain organization. Building on Transaction Cost Economics, our paper aims to fill this gap by studying the influence of vertical linkages, more precisely the incentives and managerial procedures crafted by packing stations in order to control farmers'behavior and manage the pesticide safety risk. Two surveys have been conducted to that purpose in the Moroccan SoussMassa-Drâa region. Our first survey of thirty tomato packers provides only mixed results about our first hypothesis: that the more the supply chain is integrated (from contracted growers to full ownership) the more the control of pesticide safety risk is achieved through direct supervision rather than outcome-based incentives. Our second survey of 86 producers confirms that integrated chains are more efficient in safeguarding specific investments in safety management, which results in greater diffusion of biocontrol and good agricultural practice certification within the greenhouses that are owned by private packers rather than independent farmers. ....French Abstract : La sécurité sanitaire pour les fruits et légumes frais est depuis une vingtaine d’années une préoccupation majeure pour les consommateurs et les gouvernements, notamment ceux du Nord de l’Europe. Notre étude s’intéresse au contrôle de la sécurité sanitaire pour les filières de légumes frais. Elle précise notamment comment s’organisent ces filières pour se conformer aux standards privés de la grande distribution et ainsi pouvoir accéder aux marchés d’exportation et aux marchés nationaux dits modernes. La plupart des travaux traitant de l’adoption de référentiels certifiés de bonnes pratiques agricoles ou de techniques de protection intégrée ne prennent pas en compte l’organisation de la filière et les interactions entre les acteurs de cette filière. Pour pallier ce manque, l’article analyse l’influence des relations verticales en se basant sur la Théorie des Coûts de Transaction. Plus précisément, on considère les incitations et les procédures de gestion mises en œuvre par les stations de conditionnement pour contrôler les producteurs et gérer le risque lié aux pesticides. Deux enquêtes ont été réalisées dans la région du Souss-Massa-Drâa au Maroc. La première considère trente stations spécialisées en tomate. Elle fournit des résultats contrastés quant à l’hypothèse selon laquelle, plus la filière est intégrée et plus le contrôle est réalisé à travers une supervision directe, et moins à travers la mise en œuvre d’un système incitatif. La seconde enquête considère 86 producteurs. Elle confirme que les filières les plus intégrées sont les plus efficaces en termes de protection des investissements spécifiques dans la production raisonnée. L’adoption de la lutte biologique et des référentiels de bonnes pratiques agricoles est ainsi plus importante lorsque les serres sont détenues par des stations privées, plutôt que par des producteurs indépendants des stations.

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Paper provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD - Montpellier, France in its series Working Papers MOISA with number 201304.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:201304
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  1. Souza Monteiro, Diogo M. & Caswell, Julie A., 2009. "Traceability adoption at the farm level: An empirical analysis of the Portuguese pear industry," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 94-101, February.
  2. Andrea Cristina DORR & Ulrike GROTE, 2009. "Impact of certification on fruit producers in the Sao Francisco Valley in Brazil," Economics and Applied Informatics, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 2, pages 5-16.
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