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The role of market forces and food safety institutions in the adoption of sustainable farming practices: the case of the fresh tomato export sector in Morocco and Turkey

Listed author(s):
  • Codron, J.M.
  • Adanacioglu, H.
  • Aubert, M.
  • Bouhsina, Z.
  • El Mekki, A.A.
  • Rousset, S.
  • Tozanli, S.
  • Yercan, M.

Fresh produce growers are the main source of food contamination by chemical pesticides. In their choice of farming practices, producers are influenced by market forces as well as public and private safety regulations – or “macro-drivers” – as opposed to farm-level micro-drivers. Growers respond to their business and regulatory environment by implementing integrated pest management (IPM) and other good agricultural practices (GAP), where profitable through certification schemes. Our paper attempts to analyse the adoption of sustainable farming practices beyond farm and farmer characteristics, focusing on the role of structural and institutional macro-drivers. The empirical research is based on the comparison between Turkey and Morocco, two Mediterranean countries with high export activity in the fresh tomato sector but with contrasting features in terms of both sustainable farming practices and micro/macro-drivers. With regard to the latter, we simultaneously consider supply-side and demand-side aspects (i.e. the requirements of buyers in importing countries). The analysis draws on the literature examining both IPM/GAP adoption and the impact of food safety regulation on firms' strategies. We call on face-to-face interviews with a relatively large number of tomato growers in the main production areas (N=86 in Morocco and N=186 in Turkey). Our findings show that the average level of sustainable practices is greatly affected by national market and institutional particularities, in particular on the demand side. Moreover the surveys confirm the initial assumption of the major role played by private actors in managing safety risk when there are high business stakes, as in export chains oriented towards rich Western countries. ....French Abstract : La contamination des légumes frais par les pesticides se fait principalement au niveau de la production. Dans leur choix des pratiques agricoles, les producteurs sont influencés par des forces de type macro-économique qui se situent aussi bien au niveau du marché que des régulations publiques et privées. A cela se rajoute une troisième série de forces, qui sont cette fois-ci spécifiques de l'exploitation et de l'exploitant agricoles et donc de type micro-économique. Les producteurs répondent aux exigences de leur environnement commercial et réglementaire en mettant en œuvre des bonnes pratiques agricoles qu'ils font certifier et des systèmes de gestion raisonnée aptes à lutter contre les ravageurs et maladies. Notre papier vise à expliquer l'adoption de pratiques agricoles durables en mobilisant au-delà des caractéristiques de l'exploitant et de l'exploitation agricoles, les forces structurelles et institutionnelles de type macro-économique. La recherche empirique est basée sur la comparaison de ces forces dans deux pays méditerranéens, la Turquie et le Maroc, qui sont tous les deux d'importants exportateurs de tomate mais qui sont très contrastés au niveau des pratiques d'agriculture durable et des facteurs micro ou macro qui influencent ces pratiques. L'identification de ces forces nous conduit à considérer à la fois le côté de l'offre et celui de la demande aussi bien commerciale que réglementaire. Les théories prises en compte sont celles de l'adoption des standards de bonnes pratiques agricoles ou des systèmes de production raisonnée ainsi que celles de l'impact des régulations de sécurité alimentaire sur la stratégie des firmes. Les données ont été collectées en face à face auprès d'un relativement grand nombre de producteurs (N=86 au Maroc et N=186 en Turquie). Les résultats montrent que le niveau moyen des pratiques est fortement déterminé par le marché national et par les particularités institutionnelles, en particulier du côté de la demande. Par ailleurs, les enquêtes confirment l'hypothèse du rôle majeur joué par les acteurs privés dans la gestion du risque sanitaire lorsqu'il y a de gros enjeux économiques, ce qui est le cas des filières d'exportation tournées vers les pays riches occidentaux.

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Paper provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro - Montpellier, France in its series Working Papers MOISA with number 201603.

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Date of creation: 2016
Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:201603
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