Marketing cooperative vs. commission agent: The Turkish dilemma on the modern fresh fruit and vegetable market
In Turkey, the Wholesale Markets Law was enacted in 1995 to facilitate small-scale growers' access to the fresh produce market. Cooperatives and commission agents have thus become the main marketing structures available to small-scale fresh produce growers, to supply supermarkets and comply with their new requirements. In this paper, we question the advantages and disadvantages that confront small farmers with respect to those marketing structures to allow for market matching or quality upgrading. Drawing on ownership and transaction cost arguments, we use an analytical framework to identify and compare the costs of these marketing organizations. Based on data collected through a large number of interviews with stakeholders, we show that commission agents and credit cooperatives tend to be more efficient than traditional cooperatives as regards sales performance and decision costs. However, the lack of apparent competition between commission agents does not allow for sufficient provision of incentives for producers to invest in high-quality production. Consequently, credit cooperatives are the only structure progressively turning to strategies of quality upgrading and supermarket supply. The flipside of such strategies is that they may lead to the marginalization of small-scale farmers.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jang, Jongick & Sykuta, Michael E., 2008. "Contracting for Consistency: Hog Quality and the Use of Marketing Contracts," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 5966, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Reardon, Thomas & Barrett, Christopher B. & Berdegué, Julio A. & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Agrifood Industry Transformation and Small Farmers in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1717-1727, November.
- Yoram Barzel, 2005. "Organizational Forms and Measurement Costs," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 161(3), pages 357-, September.
- Liesbeth Dries & Thomas Reardon & Johan F. M. Swinnen, 2004. "The Rapid Rise of Supermarkets in Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for the Agrifood Sector and Rural Development," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 22, pages 525-556, 09.
- Markelova, Helen & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth & Hellin, Jon & Dohrn, Stephan, 2009. "Collective action for smallholder market access," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 1-7, February.
- Poulton, Colin & Dorward, Andrew & Kydd, Jonathan, 2010. "The Future of Small Farms: New Directions for Services, Institutions, and Intermediation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1413-1428, October.
- Thorp, Rosemary & Stewart, Frances & Heyer, Amrik, 2005. "When and how far is group formation a route out of chronic poverty?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 907-920, June.
- Key, Nigel & Runsten, David, 1999. "Contract Farming, Smallholders, and Rural Development in Latin America: The Organization of Agroprocessing Firms and the Scale of Outgrower Production," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 381-401, February.
- Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Z., 2001. "The role of intermediaries in enhancing market efficiency in the Ethiopian grain market," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 25(2-3), pages 311-320, September.
- Azeta Cungu & Hamish Gow & Johan F. M. Swinnen & Liesbet Vranken, 2008. "Investment with weak contract enforcement: evidence from Hungary during transition," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 35(1), pages 75-91, March.
- Porter, Philip K & Scully, Gerald W, 1987. "Economic Efficiency in Cooperatives," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 489-512, October.
- Smith, Laurence E. D. & Stockbridge, Michael & Lohano, Hari Ram, 1999. "Facilitating the Provision of Farm Credit: The Role of Interlocking Transactions Between Traders and Zamindars in Crop Marketing Systems in Sindh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 403-418, February.
- Jill E. Hobbs, 1997. "Measuring the Importance of Transaction Costs in Cattle Marketing," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(4), pages 1083-1095.
- Minten, Bart & Randrianarison, Lalaina & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009.
"Global Retail Chains and Poor Farmers: Evidence from Madagascar,"
Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1728-1741, November.
- Bart Minten & Lalaina Randrianarison & Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2006. "Global Retail Chains and Poor Farmers: Evidence from Madagascar," LICOS Discussion Papers 16406, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
- Jean-Marie Codron & Zouhair Bouhsina & Fatiha Fort & Emilie Coudel & Aurélie Puech, 2004. "Supermarkets in Low-income Mediterranean Countries: Impacts on Horticulture Systems," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 22, pages 587-602, 09.
- Oliver E. Williamson, 2000. "The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 595-613, September.
- Dave D. Weatherspoon & Thomas Reardon, 2003. "The Rise of Supermarkets in Africa: Implications for Agrifood Systems and the Rural Poor," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 21, pages 333-355, 05.
- Michael Lipton, 2006.
"Can Small Farmers Survive, Prosper, or be the Key Channel to Cut Mass Poverty?,"
The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, vol. 3(1), pages 58-85.
- Lipton, Michael, 2006. "Can Small Farmers Survive, Prosper, or be the Key Channel to Cut Mass Poverty?," eJADE: electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization, Agricultural and Development Economics Division, vol. 3(1).
- Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Z., 2001. "The role of intermediaries in enhancing market efficiency in the Ethiopian grain market," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 25(2-3), September.
- Michael E. Sykuta & Michael L. Cook, 2001. "A New Institutional Economics Approach to Contracts and Cooperatives," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1273-1279.
- Andrew Dorward & Jonathan Kydd & Colin Poulton & Dirk Bezemer, 2009.
"Coordination Risk and Cost Impacts on Economic Development in Poor Rural Areas,"
Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(7), pages 1093-1112.
- Dorward, Andrew & Kydd, Jonathan & Poulton, Colin & Bezemer, Dirk, 2007. "Coordination risk and cost impacts on economic development in poor rural areas," MPRA Paper 7028, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Masten, Scott E & Meehan, James W, Jr & Snyder, Edward A, 1991. "The Costs of Organization," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(1), pages 1-25, Spring.
- Hansmann, Henry, 1988. "Ownership of the Firm," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(2), pages 267-304, Fall.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:36:y:2011:i:2:p:272-279. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.