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Excess Commuting in the US: Differences between the Self-Employed and Employees

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  • Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio

    () (University of Zaragoza)

  • Molina, José Alberto

    () (University of Zaragoza)

  • Velilla, Jorge

    () (University of Zaragoza)

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new spatial framework to model excess commuting of workers and we show empirical differences between the self-employed and employees in the US. In a theoretical framework where self-employed workers minimize their commuting time, employees do not minimize their commuting time because they lack full information, and thus the difference between the time devoted to commuting by self-employed workers and employees is modeled as wasteful commuting (i.e., excess commuting). We first formulate a microeconomic framework for commuting by modeling the location of individuals in urban cores surrounded by rings. Using the American Time Use Survey for the years 2003-2013, our empirical results show that employees spend twelve more minutes per day, or forty percent of the average commuting time, compared to their self-employed counterparts. This is consistent with our "diana" model, in that location is an important factor.

Suggested Citation

  • Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto & Velilla, Jorge, 2015. "Excess Commuting in the US: Differences between the Self-Employed and Employees," IZA Discussion Papers 9425, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp9425
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    Cited by:

    1. García Riazuelo, Alvaro, 2020. "Determinantes del emprendimiento en el Pais Vasco
      [Determinants of entrepreneurship in the Basque Country]
      ," MPRA Paper 98934, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Liarte Blasco, Cristian, 2020. "Determinantes del emprendimiento en Cataluña: un análisis con datos GEM
      [Determinants of entrepreneurship in Cataluña: an analysis with GEM data]
      ," MPRA Paper 99389, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Ortega Palacios, Inés, 2020. "Análisis del emprendimiento usando datos GEM: evidencias para la Comunidad de Madrid
      [Entrepreneurship analysis using Gem data: evidence for Madrid]
      ," MPRA Paper 98687, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Yixiao Li & Zhaoxin Dai & Lining Zhu & Xiaoli Liu, 2019. "Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Citizens’ Mobility Based on E-Bike GPS Trajectory Data in Tengzhou City, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(18), pages 1-17, September.
    5. Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto & Velilla, Jorge, 2016. "A Wage-Efficiency Spatial Model for US Self-Employed Workers," IZA Discussion Papers 9634, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto & Velilla, Jorge, 2016. "Spatial Distribution of US Employment in an Urban Wage-Efficiency Setting," IZA Discussion Papers 9720, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Bautista-Lacambra, Sergio, 2020. "El emprendimiento en Aragón: La salida de la crisis en forma de foto al emprendimiento
      [Entrepreneurship in Aragón: The way out of crisis as a picture of entrepreneurship]
      ," MPRA Paper 98704, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal & Jose Alberto, Molina & Jorge, Velilla, 2017. "Leisure and effort at work: incorporating self-employment into urban markets," MPRA Paper 77972, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. de la Fuente, Ignacio, 2020. "Determinantes del emprendimiento en La Rioja (España)
      [Entrepreneurship determinants in La Rioja (Spain)]
      ," MPRA Paper 98894, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Gascón Salillas, Patricia, 2020. "La actividad emprendedora: Análisis transversal en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra
      [Entrepreneurship activity: Cross-sectional analysis in the Region of Navarra]
      ," MPRA Paper 99386, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Kimbrough, Gray, 2016. "What Drives Gender Differences in Commuting Behavior: Evidence from the American Time Use Survey," UNCG Economics Working Papers 16-4, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics, revised 10 Jun 2016.
    12. Gray Kimbrough, 2016. "What Drives Gender Differences in Commuting? Evidence from the American Time Use Survey," 2016 Papers pki275, Job Market Papers.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    excess commuting; urban cores; American Time Use Survey; self-employed workers; employees;

    JEL classification:

    • R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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