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Objective and Subjective Dimensions Of Travel Impedance as Determinants Of Commuting Stress


  • Novaco, Raymond W.
  • Stokols, Daniel
  • Milanesi, Louis


The stressful characteristics of commuting constraints are conceptualized in terms of both physical and perceptual conditions of travel impedance. This study develops and operationalizes the concept of subjective impedance, as a complement to our previously developed concept of impedance as a physically defined condition of commuting stress. The stress impacts of high-impedance commuting were examined in a study of 79 employees of two companies in the follow-up testing of a longitudinal study. Subjective impedance was overlapping but not isomorphic with physical impedance, and these two dimensions have differential relationships with health and well-being outcomes. The physical impedance construct received further confirmation in validational analyses and in predicted effects on various illness measures and job satisfaction. The newly constructed subjective impedance index was significantly related to evening home mood, residential satisfaction, and chest pain. Job change was also influenced primarily by commuting satisfaction. The results are discussed within an ecological framework emphasizing inter-domain transfer effects and situational moderators of commuting stress.

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  • Novaco, Raymond W. & Stokols, Daniel & Milanesi, Louis, 1990. "Objective and Subjective Dimensions Of Travel Impedance as Determinants Of Commuting Stress," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5jq8164z, University of California Transportation Center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt5jq8164z

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    1. Ge, Houtian & Canning, Patrick & Goetz, Stephan & Perez, Agnes, 2015. "Assessing the Supplier Role of Selected Fresh Produce Value Chains in the United States," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205713, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association;Western Agricultural Economics Association.
    2. Ge, Houtian & Goetz, Stephan, 2016. "Hub Location in Fresh Produce Supply Chains," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235826, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    3. Georg Gottholmseder & Klaus Nowotny & Gerald J. Pruckner & Engelbert Theurl, 2009. "Stress perception and commuting," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(5), pages 559-576.
    4. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1997. "Modeling the desire to telecommute: The importance of attitudinal factors in behavioral models," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 35-50, January.
    5. Lorenz, Olga & Goerke, Laszlo, 2015. "Commuting and Sickness Absence," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113173, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    6. Friman, Margareta & Fujii, Satoshi & Ettema, Dick & Gärling, Tommy & Olsson, Lars E., 2013. "Psychometric analysis of the satisfaction with travel scale," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 132-145.
    7. Bart Neuts & Peter Nijkamp & Eveline van Leeuwen, 2013. "Crowding Externalities from Tourist Use of Urban Space," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-146/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    8. Pazy, Asya & Salomon, Ilan & Pintzov, Tovi, 1996. "The impacts of women's careers on their commuting behavior: A case study of Israeli computer professionals," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 269-286, July.
    9. Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto & Velilla, Jorge, 2015. "Excess Commuting in the US: Differences between the Self-Employed and Employees," IZA Discussion Papers 9425, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Karlström, Anders & Isacsson, Gunnar, 2009. "Is sick absence related to commuting travel time? - Swedish Evidence Based on the Generalized Propensity Score Estimator," Working Papers 2010:3, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    11. Lars Olsson & Tommy Gärling & Dick Ettema & Margareta Friman & Satoshi Fujii, 2013. "Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 111(1), pages 255-263, March.
    12. Abou-Zeid, Maya & Ben-Akiva, Moshe, 2011. "The effect of social comparisons on commute well-being," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 345-361, May.
    13. Edoardo Marcucci, 1999. "Road Pricing: Old Beliefs, Present Awareness and Future Research Patterns," Working Papers 1999.4, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    14. Eriksson, Lars & Friman, Margareta & Gärling, Tommy, 2013. "Perceived attributes of bus and car mediating satisfaction with the work commute," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 87-96.
    15. Shoup, Donald C. & Willson, Richard W., 1992. "Commuting, Congestion and Pollution: The Employer-Paid Parking Connection," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2f0485tp, University of California Transportation Center.
    16. Novaco, Raymond W. & Kliewer, Wendy & Broquet, Alexander, 1991. "Home Environment Consequences of Commute Travel Impedance," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1d5742g7, University of California Transportation Center.
    17. Novaco, Raymond W., 2000. "Traffic and Transport Psychology: Theory and Application, Talib Rothengatter, Enrique Carbonell Vaya (Eds.); Elsevier Science, Ltd., The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford 0X5 1GB, UK, 1997,," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 654-657, November.
    18. Richard Wener & Gary Evans & Donald Phillips & Natasha Nadler, 2003. "Running for the 7:45: The effects of public transit improvements on commuter stress," Transportation, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 203-220, May.
    19. Shoup, Donald C., 1992. "Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4548s6j5, University of California Transportation Center.

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