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Auswirkungen des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns auf Betriebe und Unternehmen

Author

Listed:
  • Bossler, Mario

    (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)

  • Gürtzgen, Nicole

    (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)

  • Börschlein, Erik-Benjamin

    (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)

Abstract

"This report contains the results of the research project "Effects of the statutory minimum wage on establishments and enterprises". The project is carried out by the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) on behalf of the German Minimum Wage Commission. The report focuses on detailed empirical analyses of the effects of the introduction and the first increase of the statutory minimum wage in Germany on various establishment-level outcomes. The empirical analysis is mainly based on the difference-in-differences approach, which is largely applied at the establishment level. Prior to the empirical analysis, we provide a detailed description of the empirical methodology and the data. Concluding the report, we give a summary of the results and an outlook on future analyses of minimum wage related adjustment reactions. While the analyses based on the IAB Establishment Panel show a moderate negative effect of the minimum wage introduction on employment (approx. -88,000 employment relationships), the effect of the first minimum wage increase in 2017 tends to be positive for the affected establishments (approx. +39,000 employment relationships). The positive effect of the minimum wage increase seems to be plausible because the increase in real wages is only 0.9 percent (annually), while the labor market developed positively in the low-wage segment. The overall employment effect is extrapolated to a decline of 49,000 jobs by 2018, while the effect is particularly concentrated on establishments in Eastern Germany and employers that feel exposed to high competitive pressure. In monopsonistic industries, however, the effect is relatively small. For special employment groups including temporary workers, freelancers and interns, we cannot empirically verify a significant employment effect of the minimum wage. Analyses of the overall labor demand with the IAB Job Vacancy Survey do not indicate a significant effect of the minimum wage on the number of vacancies. With regard to profitability of establishments, the analyses show a significant negative impact of the introduction of the minimum wage, but do not provide evidence of any significant effects of the first minimum wage increase. The profitability-decreasing effect of the introduction of the minimum wage is mainly due to the increase in operational personnel costs. At the same time, the analyses do not show any significant effect on the productivity of the affected establishments, indicating that the affected establishments did not compensate the minimum wage by increasing the productivity of their employees. Analyses of the effects of the minimum wage on investments in physical and human capital show significant negative effects in the short run for the year after the introduction of the minimum wage. Affected establishments initially reduced their investment levels right after the introduction of the minimum wage, but they did not show any minimum wage-related adjustment in their investment behavior in the following years. However, we clearly observe a structural difference that already existed before the minimum wage was introduced or increased. Establishments not affected by the minimum wage invest considerably more in physical capital and in the training of their employees. Effects on the share of apprentices and the number of apprenticeship training positions offered or filled are neither found for the minimum wage introduction nor for the first minimum wage increase. Consequently, investments in apprenticeship training were not reduced because of increased personnel costs. The results also do not indicate any effects of the introduction or increase of the minimum wage on integration or outsourcing activities of establishments or on the share of intermediate inputs in the production process." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))

Suggested Citation

  • Bossler, Mario & Gürtzgen, Nicole & Börschlein, Erik-Benjamin, 2020. "Auswirkungen des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns auf Betriebe und Unternehmen," IAB-Forschungsbericht 202005, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  • Handle: RePEc:iab:iabfob:202005
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    1. Bossler, Mario & Gürtzgen, Nicole & Lochner, Benjamin & Betzl, Ute & Feist, Lisa & Wegmann, Jakob, 2018. "Auswirkungen des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns auf Betriebe und Unternehmen," IAB-Forschungsbericht 201804, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    2. Bachmann, Ronald & Boockmann, Bernhard & Gonschor, Myrielle & Kalweit, René & Klauser, Roman & Laub, Natalie & Rulff, Christian & Vonnahme, Christina, 2022. "Auswirkungen des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns auf Löhne und Arbeitszeiten," RWI Projektberichte, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, number 264288.
    3. Arne Heise, 2019. "The resilience of modern neoclassical economics – a case study in the light of Ludwik Fleck’s ‘harmony of deception’," The Journal of Philosophical Economics, Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, The Journal of Philosophical Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 1-18, November.
    4. Bachmann, Ronald & Bonin, Holger & Boockmann, Bernhard & Demir, Gökay & Felder, Rahel & Isphording, Ingo & Kalweit, René & Laub, Natalie & Vonnahme, Christina & Zimpelmann, Christian, 2020. "Auswirkungen des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns auf Löhne und Arbeitszeiten: Studie im Auftrag der Mindestlohnkommission," RWI Projektberichte, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, number 222998.
    5. Bonin, Holger & Pestel, Nico, 2020. "Der Mindestlohn birgt nach wie vor Beschäftigungsrisiken," IZA Standpunkte 98, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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    7. Christian Kagerl & Clemens Ohlert, 2021. "Mindestlohnbetriebe in der zweiten Corona-Welle [Minimum Wage Companies in the Second Wave of the Corona Crisis]," Wirtschaftsdienst, Springer;ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 101(10), pages 804-808, October.
    8. Mario Bossler & Joachim Möller, 2019. "The Effects of the Compulsory Minimum Wage in Germany," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 16(04), pages 14-18, January.
    9. Bossler, Mario & Gürtzgen, Nicole & Lochner, Benjamin & Betzl, Ute & Feist, Lisa, 2018. "The German minimum wage: Effects on business expectations, profitability, and investments," FAU Discussion Papers in Economics 13/2018, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Economics.
    10. Bonin Holger & Isphording Ingo E. & Krause-Pilatus Annabelle & Pestel Nico & Rinne Ulf & Lichter Andreas, 2020. "The German Statutory Minimum Wage and Its Effects on Regional Employment and Unemployment," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 240(2-3), pages 295-319, April.
    11. Bossler Mario & Gürtzgen Nicole & Betzl Ute & Feist Lisa & Lochner Benjamin, 2020. "The German Minimum Wage: Effects on Productivity, Profitability, and Investments," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 240(2-3), pages 321-350, April.
    12. Alfred Garloff, 2019. "Did the German Minimum Wage Reform Influence (Un)employment Growth in 2015? Evidence from Regional Data," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 20(3), pages 356-381, August.
    13. Arne Heise & Toralf Pusch, 2021. "Die „Harmonie der Täuschungen“ muss enden, damit Politikberatung glaubwürdiger wird," Wirtschaftsdienst, Springer;ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 101(12), pages 940-942, December.
    14. repec:ces:ifodic:v:16:y:2019:i:4:p:50000000004800 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Mr. Hyun Park & Mr. Christian H Ebeke & La-Bhus Fah Jirasavetakul & Ms. Yu Shi & Florian Misch & Mr. Davide Malacrino & Koralai Kirabaeva & Ms. Enrica Detragiache, 2020. "A European Minimum Wage: Implications for Poverty and Macroeconomic Imbalances," IMF Working Papers 2020/059, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Börschlein, Erik-Benjamin & Bossler, Mario, 2021. "Rückgang der Arbeitsnachfrage in der Corona-Krise: Kurzfristig sind Mindestlohnbetriebe etwas stärker betroffen : Aktualisierte Version vom 20.12.2021 (Decreasing labor demand in course of the Corona-," IAB-Kurzbericht 202112, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    17. Pestel, Nico & Bonin, Holger & Isphording, Ingo E. & Gregory, Terry & Caliendo, Marco, 2020. "Auswirkungen des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns auf Beschäftigung und Arbeitslosigkeit," IZA Research Reports 95, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    18. Arne Heise, 2022. "Mindestlöhne, Beschäftigung und die „Harmonie der Täuschungen“," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 48(1), pages 83-107.
    19. Koch, Andreas & Kirchmann, Andrea & Reiner, Marcel & Scheu, Tobias & Zühlke, Anne & Bonin, Holger, 2020. "Verhaltensmuster von Betrieben und Beschäftigten im Kontext des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns," IZA Research Reports 97, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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