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Exports, agglomeration and workforce diversity : an empirical assessment for German establishments

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  • Brunow, Stephan

    () (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])

  • Grünwald, Luise

Abstract

"Theoretical and empirical contributions on export behavior highlight the importance of firms' productivity and their levels of economies of scale on firms' export success in 'foreign' markets. In the context of agglomeration economies, firms enjoy productivity gains when they are located close to competitors or upstreaming industries and they benefit from knowledge spillovers and other positive externalities. In such a stimulating environment, firms become more prone to be exporters. Beyond the role played by externalities, firms may benefit when they employ a diverse workforce and when the interaction of distinct knowledge and related problem-solving abilities increases productivity and secures export success. In this paper, we ask whether German firms (i. e., establishments) benefit from localization and urbanization externalities and face higher export proportions. We also control for a variety of establishment characteristics and workforce diversity. For this purpose, a comprehensive German data set that combines survey data and administrative data is used. While controlling for firm heterogeneity in a fractional response model, we provide evidence that manufacturing establishments and smaller establishments (up to 250 employees) benefit most from externalities and especially from knowledge spillover. There is weak evidence supporting the benefit of workforce diversity; however, that factor could explain between-establishment variation." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))

Suggested Citation

  • Brunow, Stephan & Grünwald, Luise, 2015. "Exports, agglomeration and workforce diversity : an empirical assessment for German establishments," IAB Discussion Paper 201503, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  • Handle: RePEc:iab:iabdpa:201503
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:kap:empiri:v:46:y:2019:i:1:d:10.1007_s10663-018-9425-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Möller, Joachim, 2015. "Verheißung oder Bedrohung? : die Arbeitsmarktwirkungen einer vierten industriellen Revolution," IAB Discussion Paper 201518, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Export; Unternehmen; Ballungsraum; Arbeitsproduktivität - Determinanten; Arbeitskräftestruktur; Heterogenität; regionale Faktoren; Regionalverflechtung; Wissenstransfer; kulturelle Faktoren; Standortfaktoren; IAB-Betriebspanel; IAB-Beschäftigtenhistorik;

    JEL classification:

    • D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • M14 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - Corporate Culture; Diversity; Social Responsibility
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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