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Determinants of Export Behaviour of German Business Services Companies

Author

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  • Alexander Eickelpasch

    (Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Department of Innovation, Manufacturing, Service)

  • Alexander Vogel

    (Institute of Economics, University of Lüneburg)

Abstract

The determinants of export behaviour at firm level have been widely investigated for manufacturing companies. By contrast, what has remained largely neglected is a detailed investigation in the service sector. As aggregate statistics show, international trade in services has grown significantly over the last few years. However, it is unclear why some companies export and others do not. This paper presents some initial results about the German business services sector at firm level. Using a unique panel dataset of enterprises from the business services sector (transport, storage and communication, real estate, renting and business activities) for the years 2003 to 2005, we analysed the impact of several firm-specific characteristics such as size, productivity, human capital, experience on the national market in Germany, etc. on the firms’ export performance. Further, we used the pooled fractional probit estimator, recently introduced by Papke & Wooldridge, an approach that considers both the special nature of the export intensity variable and in addition unobserved time-invariant characteristics. When there is no control for fixed enterprise effects the overall results are in line with previous studies. When there is a control for unobserved heterogeneity, the positive effects of productivity and human capital disappear, indicating that these variables are not per se positively related to export performance, but rather to time-constant characteristics that are unobserved. Size and product diversification still have a positive and significant effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexander Eickelpasch & Alexander Vogel, 2009. "Determinants of Export Behaviour of German Business Services Companies," Working Paper Series in Economics 123, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:lue:wpaper:123
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    1. Andrés Zahler & Leonardo Iacovone & Aaditya Mattoo, 2014. "Trade and Innovation in Services: Evidence from a Developing Economy," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(7), pages 953-979, July.
    2. Stephan Brunow & Luise Grünwald, 2014. "Exports, agglomeration and workforce diversity: An empirical assessment of German establishments," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2014008, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
    3. Joachim Wagner, 2014. "Exports, foreign direct investments and productivity: are services firms different?," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 24-37, January.
    4. Alexander Eickelpasch, 2014. "R&D Behavior of German Manufacturing Companies during the 2008/09 Recession," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1357, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    5. Vogel , Alexander & Wagner, Joachim, 2012. "Innovation and Exports of German Business Services Enterprises: First evidence from a new type of firm data," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 285, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    6. Alexander Vogel, 2009. "The German Business Services Statistics Panel 2003 to 2007," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 129(3), pages 515-522.
    7. Fulvio Castellacci, 2014. "Service Firms Heterogeneity, International Collaborations and Export Participation," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 259-285, June.
    8. Conti, Giuliano & Lo Turco, Alessia & Maggioni, Daniela, 2014. "Spillovers through backward linkages and the export performance of business services. Evidence from a sample of Italian firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 552-565.
    9. Tanja GrubljeÅ¡iÄ & Jože Damijan, 2011. "From Differences in Export Behavior of Services and Manufacturing Firms in Slovenia," LICOS Discussion Papers 29511, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    10. John P. Weche Geluebcke, 2011. "Foreign Ownership and Firm Performance in German Services: First Evidence based on Official Statistics," Working Paper Series in Economics 213, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    11. Francesco Bripi & David Loschiavo & Davide Revelli, 2020. "Services trade and credit frictions: Evidence with matched bank–firm data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(5), pages 1216-1252, May.
    12. Falk, Martin & Hagsten, Eva, 2015. "Export behaviour of SMEs in the Swedish computer service industry," Economics Discussion Papers 2015-14, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    13. Becker, Gideon, 2014. "The portfolio structure of German households: A multinomial fractional response approach with unobserved heterogeneity," University of Tübingen Working Papers in Business and Economics 74, University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, School of Business and Economics.
    14. Asier Minondo, 2011. "Exporters of services in Spain," Working Papers 2011R04, Orkestra - Basque Institute of Competitiveness.
    15. Zhao Chen & Tony Fang, 2016. "Chinese Returnees and High-Tech Sector Outward FDI: The Case of Changzhou," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 15(3), pages 195-215, Fall.
    16. Roberto Álvarez & Claudio Bravo-Ortega & Andrés Zahler, 2015. "Innovation and Productivity in Services: Evidence from Chile," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(3), pages 593-611, May.
    17. Vu, Van Huong, 2012. "Does export participation affect wages and employment quality? the case of Vietnamese SMEs," MPRA Paper 38696, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Iza Lejárraga & Harald Oberhofer, 2015. "Performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises in services trade: evidence from French firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 673-702, October.
    19. Giuliano Conti & Alessia Lo Turco & Daniela Maggioni, 2010. "Exporters in Services: new Evidence from Italian Firms," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 56(1), pages 73-98.
    20. Minondo, Asier, 2012. "Trading firms in the Spanish services sector," MPRA Paper 43224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Konstantins Benkovskis & Olegs Tkacevs, 2015. "Everything you always wanted to know about Latvia's service exporters (but were afraid to ask)," Working Papers 2015/06, Latvijas Banka.
    22. Falk, Martin & Hagsten, Eva, 2015. "Export behaviour of micro firms in the Swedish computer and business service industries," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 9, pages 1-24.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Business services sector; export behaviour; firm performance;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • L80 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - General

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