IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/grz/wpaper/2018-18.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Corruption in space: A closer look at the world's subnations

Author

Listed:
  • Stefan Borsky

    (University of Graz, Austria)

  • Katja Kalkschmied

    (University of Graz, Austria)

Abstract

The level of corruption differs not only between countries, but also between subnations within countries. In this paper, we analyze spatial interdependencies in corruption levels for a large sample of 1,232 subnations in 81 countries. Based on a spatial autoregressive model, which additionally corrects for spatial autocorrelation in the error term, we find that a subnation’s corruption level is positively affected by neighboring subnations’ corruption levels. This suggests that subnational corruption levels are strategic complements. Extending the core model and allowing for heterogeneous spatial interdependencies our results indicate that in particular high income subnations and subnations with a relative low corruption level tend to spill in space. This is due to their high degree of connectivity in terms of economic, sociocultural and political exchange with other subnations. Our findings underline the importance to consider not only a subnation’s own characteristics but also their degree of connectivity with other subnations when implementing effective anti-corruption policies on a local level.

Suggested Citation

  • Stefan Borsky & Katja Kalkschmied, 2018. "Corruption in space: A closer look at the world's subnations," Graz Economics Papers 2018-18, University of Graz, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:grz:wpaper:2018-18
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www100.uni-graz.at/vwlwww/forschung/RePEc/wpaper/2018-18.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kelejian, Harry H & Prucha, Ingmar R, 1999. "A Generalized Moments Estimator for the Autoregressive Parameter in a Spatial Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 509-533, May.
    2. Volker Nitsch, 2000. "National borders and international trade: evidence from the European Union," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1091-1105, November.
    3. Kelejian, Harry H. & Murrell, Peter & Shepotylo, Oleksandr, 2013. "Spatial spillovers in the development of institutions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 297-315.
    4. Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2002. "The Regulation of Entry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 1-37.
    5. Nathan Nunn & Diego Puga, 2012. "Ruggedness: The Blessing of Bad Geography in Africa," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(1), pages 20-36, February.
    6. Stephen Gibbons & Henry G. Overman, 2012. "Mostly Pointless Spatial Econometrics?," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 172-191, May.
    7. Qian, Yingyi & Roland, Gerard, 1998. "Federalism and the Soft Budget Constraint," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1143-1162, December.
    8. Torsten Persson & Guido Tabellini & Francesco Trebbi, 2003. "Electoral Rules and Corruption," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(4), pages 958-989, June.
    9. Ward, Hugh & Dorussen, Han, 2015. "Public Information and Performance: The Role of Spatial Dependence in the Worldwide Governance Indicators among African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 253-263.
    10. Sharun W. Mukand & Dani Rodrik, 2005. "In Search of the Holy Grail: Policy Convergence, Experimentation, and Economic Performance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 374-383, March.
    11. Dong, Bin & Torgler, Benno, 2012. "Corruption and social interaction: Evidence from China," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 932-947.
    12. Kelejian, Harry H & Prucha, Ingmar R, 1998. "A Generalized Spatial Two-Stage Least Squares Procedure for Estimating a Spatial Autoregressive Model with Autoregressive Disturbances," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 99-121, July.
    13. Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2010. "Specification and estimation of spatial autoregressive models with autoregressive and heteroskedastic disturbances," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 157(1), pages 53-67, July.
    14. Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A., 2009. "Trade, inequality, and the political economy of institutions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(4), pages 1489-1520, July.
    15. Jetter, Michael & Parmeter, Christopher F., 2018. "Sorting through global corruption determinants: Institutions and education matter – Not culture," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 279-294.
    16. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 1999. "The Quality of Government," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 222-279, April.
    17. Berkowitz, Daniel & Pistor, Katharina & Richard, Jean-Francois, 2003. "Economic development, legality, and the transplant effect," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 165-195, February.
    18. Clague, Christopher & Keefer, Philip & Knack, Stephen & Olson, Mancur, 1996. "Property and Contract Rights in Autocracies and Democracies," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 243-276, June.
    19. A.G. Champion, 2001. "A Changing Demographic Regime and Evolving Poly centric Urban Regions: Consequences for the Size, Composition and Distribution of City Populations," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 38(4), pages 657-677, April.
    20. David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
    21. Nicola Gennaioli & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2013. "Human Capital and Regional Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 128(1), pages 105-164.
    22. van der Horst, Dan, 2006. "Spatial cost-benefit thinking in multi-functional forestry; towards a framework for spatial targeting of policy interventions," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 171-180, August.
    23. Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2004. "Estimation of simultaneous systems of spatially interrelated cross sectional equations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 118(1-2), pages 27-50.
    24. repec:hrv:faseco:30747190 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Günther G. Schulze & Bambang Suharnoko Sjahrir & Nikita Zakharov, 2016. "Corruption in Russia," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(1), pages 135-171.
    26. Sascha O. Becker & Katrin Boeckh & Christa Hainz & Ludger Woessmann, 2016. "The Empire Is Dead, Long Live the Empire! Long‐Run Persistence of Trust and Corruption in the Bureaucracy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 126(590), pages 40-74, February.
    27. Edwards, Sebastian, 1998. "Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 383-398, March.
    28. Irwin, Douglas A. & Tervio, Marko, 2002. "Does trade raise income?: Evidence from the twentieth century," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 1-18, October.
    29. Faber, Gerrit & Gerritse, Michiel, 2012. "Foreign determinants of local institutions: Spatial dependence and openness," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 54-63.
    30. Bikhchandani, Sushil & Hirshleifer, David & Welch, Ivo, 1992. "A Theory of Fads, Fashion, Custom, and Cultural Change in Informational Cascades," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 992-1026, October.
    31. Treisman, Daniel, 2000. "The causes of corruption: a cross-national study," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 399-457, June.
    32. Anne-Célia Disdier & Keith Head, 2008. "The Puzzling Persistence of the Distance Effect on Bilateral Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 37-48, February.
    33. Belousova, Veronika & Rajeev, K. Goel & Korhonen, Iikka, 2011. "Causes of Corruption in Russia: A Disaggregated Analysis," Discussion Paper Series 557, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    34. Murrell, Peter & Dunn, Karen Turner & Korsun, Georges, 1996. "The Culture of Policy-Making in the Transition from Socialism: Price Policy in Mongolia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(1), pages 175-194, October.
    35. repec:hhs:bofitp:2011_031 is not listed on IDEAS
    36. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson, 2001. "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1369-1401, December.
    37. Harry Kelejian & Ingmar Prucha, 2010. "Spatial models with spatially lagged dependent variables and incomplete data," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 241-257, September.
    38. Nicole Van Der Gaag & Leo Van Wissen, 2001. "Determinants of the subnational distribution of immigration," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 92(1), pages 27-41, February.
    39. Kelejian, Harry H. & Piras, Gianfranco, 2014. "Estimation of spatial models with endogenous weighting matrices, and an application to a demand model for cigarettes," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 140-149.
    40. Becker, Sascha O. & Egger, Peter H. & Seidel, Tobias, 2009. "Common political culture: Evidence on regional corruption contagion," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 300-310, September.
    41. Masahiko Aoki, 2001. "Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262011875.
    42. Mitton, Todd, 2016. "The wealth of subnations: Geography, institutions, and within-country development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 88-111.
    43. Hillberry, Russell & Hummels, David, 2008. "Trade responses to geographic frictions: A decomposition using micro-data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 527-550, April.
    44. Qu, Xi & Lee, Lung-fei, 2015. "Estimating a spatial autoregressive model with an endogenous spatial weight matrix," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 184(2), pages 209-232.
    45. Jamie Bologna, 2017. "Contagious corruption, informal employment, and income: evidence from Brazilian municipalities," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 58(1), pages 67-118, January.
    46. Elizabeth Gooch & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Bauyrzhan Yedgenov, 2016. "A Superior Instrument for the Role of Institutional Quality on Economic Development," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1610, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    47. Harrison, Ann, 1996. "Openness and growth: A time-series, cross-country analysis for developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 419-447, March.
    48. McCallum, John, 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 615-623, June.
    49. López-Valcárcel, Beatriz G. & Jiménez, Juan Luis & Perdiguero, Jordi, 2017. "Danger: Local corruption is contagious!," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 790-808.
    50. Danila Serra, 2006. "Empirical determinants of corruption: A sensitivity analysis," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 126(1), pages 225-256, January.
    51. J. Elhorst, 2010. "Applied Spatial Econometrics: Raising the Bar," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 9-28.
    52. repec:oup:qjecon:v:128:y:2012:i:1:p:105-164 is not listed on IDEAS
    53. Won Kim, Chong & Phipps, Tim T. & Anselin, Luc, 2003. "Measuring the benefits of air quality improvement: a spatial hedonic approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 24-39, January.
    54. Nils B. Weidmann & Jan Ketil Roslashd & Lars-Erik Cederman, 2010. "Representing ethnic groups in space: A new dataset," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 47(4), pages 491-499, July.
    55. repec:hrv:faseco:30747160 is not listed on IDEAS
    56. Veronika Belousova & Rajeev Goel & Iikka Korhonen, 2016. "Corruption perceptions versus corruption incidence: Competition for rents across Russian regions," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 40(1), pages 172-187, January.
    57. Stefan Borsky & Paul A. Raschky, 2015. "Intergovernmental Interaction in Compliance with an International Environmental Agreement," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(2), pages 161-203.
    58. Paolo Mauro, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712.
    59. Paldam, Martin, 2002. "The cross-country pattern of corruption: economics, culture and the seesaw dynamics," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 215-240, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. François, Abel & Méon, Pierre-Guillaume, 2021. "Politicians at higher levels of government are perceived as more corrupt," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    2. Gründler, Klaus & Potrafke, Niklas, 2019. "Corruption and economic growth: New empirical evidence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    3. Klaus Gründler & Niklas Potrafke & Timo Wochner, 2019. "Korruption und Wirtschaftswachstum," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 72(18), pages 27-33, September.
    4. Sajad Rahimian, 2021. "Corruption Determinants, Geography, and Model Uncertainty," Papers 2105.12878, arXiv.org.
    5. Bo Sui & Chun-Ping Chang & Yin Chu, 2021. "Political Stability: an Impetus for Spatial Environmental Spillovers," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 79(2), pages 387-415, June.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Kelejian, Harry H. & Murrell, Peter & Shepotylo, Oleksandr, 2013. "Spatial spillovers in the development of institutions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 297-315.
    2. Eugen Dimant & Guglielmo Tosato, 2018. "Causes And Effects Of Corruption: What Has Past Decade'S Empirical Research Taught Us? A Survey," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(2), pages 335-356, April.
    3. Dreher, Axel & Kotsogiannis, Christos & McCorriston, Steve, 2007. "Corruption around the world: Evidence from a structural model," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 443-466, September.
    4. Aidt, Toke & Dutta, Jayasri & Sena, Vania, 2008. "Governance regimes, corruption and growth: Theory and evidence," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 195-220, June.
    5. Aidt, T. & Dutta, J. & Vania Sena, 2005. "Growth, Governance and Corruption in the Presence of Threshold Effects: Theory and Evidence," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0540, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    6. Pieroni, L. & d'Agostino, G., 2013. "Corruption and the effects of economic freedom," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 54-72.
    7. Ezcurra, Roberto & Zuazu, Izaskun, 2019. "Political equality and quality of government," MPRA Paper 96476, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Krisztina Kis-Katos & Günther G. Schulze, 2013. "Corruption in Southeast Asia: a survey of recent research," Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, vol. 27(1), pages 79-109, May.
    9. You, Jong-Sung & Khagram, Sanjeev, 2004. "Inequality and Corruption," Working Paper Series rwp04-001, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    10. Trung V. Vu, 2021. "Climate, diseases, and the origins of corruption," Economics of Transition and Institutional Change, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 29(4), pages 621-649, October.
    11. Neeman Zvika & Paserman M. Daniele & Simhon Avi, 2008. "Corruption and Openness," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-40, December.
    12. Breton, Theodore R., 2004. "Can institutions or education explain world poverty? An augmented Solow model provides some insights," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 45-69, March.
    13. Jetter, Michael & Parmeter, Christopher F., 2018. "Sorting through global corruption determinants: Institutions and education matter – Not culture," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 279-294.
    14. Capolupo, Rosa, 2009. "The New Growth Theories and Their Empirics after Twenty Years," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 3, pages 1-72.
    15. Malikov, Emir & Sun, Yiguo, 2017. "Semiparametric estimation and testing of smooth coefficient spatial autoregressive models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 199(1), pages 12-34.
    16. Akbari, Mahsa & Bahrami-Rad, Duman & Kimbrough, Erik O., 2019. "Kinship, fractionalization and corruption," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 493-528.
    17. Theo S. Eicher & David J. Kuenzel, 2019. "European influence and economic development," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 52(2), pages 667-734, May.
    18. Michael Jetter & Christopher F. Parmeter, 2016. "Uncovering the determinants of corruption," Working Papers 2016-02, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
    19. Cintra, Renato Fabiano & Cassol, Alessandra & Ribeiro, Ivano & de Carvalho, Antonio Oliveira, 2018. "Corruption and emerging markets: Systematic review of the most cited," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 607-619.
    20. Jülide Yildirim & Nadir Öcal, 2016. "Military expenditures, economic growth and spatial spillovers," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1), pages 87-104, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Subnational corruption; heterogenous spatial impact; spatial econometrics;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • D02 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Institutions: Design, Formation, Operations, and Impact
    • D73 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
    • P48 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:grz:wpaper:2018-18. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vgrazat.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Michael Scholz (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vgrazat.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.