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Female employment in MENA’s manufacturing sector: the implications of firm-related and national factors

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  • Ali Fakih

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  • Pascal Ghazalian

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Abstract

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has realized significant advances toward improving women’s well-being and social status over the last few decades. However, women’s employment rate in the MENA region remains one of the lowest in the world. This paper examines the implications of firm-related and national factors for female employment in manufacturing firms located in the MENA region. The empirical analysis is implemented for firm-level data derived from the World Bank’s Enterprise Surveys database. It uses fractional logit and other econometric models to perform the estimations for female overall employment, female non-production employment, and female employment in managerial positions. The results reveal significant implications of firm-related factors, such as private foreign ownership, exporting activities, firm size, and labour composition, for female employment. They also show that national factors, such as economic development and gender equality, promote female employment. There are considerable differences in the estimated marginal effects across female employment categories. This paper provides policy-makers with directions to design strategies aiming at enhancing women’s economic opportunities and employment rates. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Ali Fakih & Pascal Ghazalian, 2015. "Female employment in MENA’s manufacturing sector: the implications of firm-related and national factors," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 37-69, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:ecopln:v:48:y:2015:i:1:p:37-69
    DOI: 10.1007/s10644-014-9155-1
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    Cited by:

    1. Fischer, Justina AV & Aydıner-Avşar, Nursel, 2015. "Are women in the MENA region really that different from women in Europe? Globalization, conservative values and female labor market participation," MPRA Paper 63800, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Ali Fakih & Pascal L. Ghazalian, 2015. "What factors influence firm perceptions of labour market constraints to growth in the MENA region?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(8), pages 1181-1206, November.
    3. Ahmed, Salma & Feeny, Simon & Posso, Alberto, 2015. "What firm characteristics determine women’s employment in manufacturing? Evidence from Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 84492, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. repec:eee:ecanpo:v:55:y:2017:i:c:p:106-123 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Abdallah Dah & Ali Fakih, 2016. "Decomposing Gender Wage Differentials Using Quantile Regression: Evidence from the Lebanese Banking Sector," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 22(2), pages 171-185, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Female employment; Fractional logit model; Manufacturing firms; MENA region; J16; J21; J23; J82;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J82 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Labor Force Composition

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