International trade, female labor, and entrepreneurship in MENA countries
Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries stand out in international comparisons of de jure obstacles to female employment and entrepreneurship. These obstacles manifest themselves in low rates of female labor participation, entrepreneurship, and ownership. Recent research suggests a connection between international trade and female labor participation. In this article, the authors focus on the relationship between international trade and gender in the MENA countries. They first analyze female labor as a production factor and then focus on female entrepreneurship and firm ownership. The authors use country- and industry-level data to identify countries and industries characterized by a comparative advantage in female labor. They find evidence suggesting a strong link between a country’s specialization and its measures of female labor participation consistent with theories of brain-based technological bias and factor endowments trade theories. Using firm-level data, the authors then study whether trade empowers female entrepreneurs in country/industry pairs that exhibit comparative advantage. They conclude that the evidence supports the view that exposure to trade disproportionately affects firms in country/industry pairs with a comparative advantage in female labor—both in terms of female employment and female entrepreneurship and ownership—for the MENA countries and the period they study.
Volume (Year): (2013)
Issue (Month): Jan ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.stlouisfed.org/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Web: http://www.stls.frb.org/research/order/pubform.html Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michelle Rendall, 2010.
"Brain versus brawn: the realization of women's comparative advantage,"
IEW - Working Papers
491, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Michelle Rendall, 2010. "Brain versus Brawn: The Realization of Women's Comparative Advantage," 2010 Meeting Papers 926, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Quy-Toan Do & Andrei A. Levchenko & Claudio Raddatz, .
"Comparative Advantage, International Trade, and Fertility,"
624, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei & Raddatz, Claudio, 2014. "Comparative advantage, international trade, and fertility," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6930, The World Bank.
- Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A. & Raddatz, Claudio, 2011. "Engendering trade," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5777, The World Bank.
- Leonardi, Marco, 2005.
"Firm Heterogeneity in Capital labor Ratios and Wage Inequality,"
Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series
qt1g9514wh, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
- Marco Leonardi, 2007. "Firm heterogeneity in capital-labour ratios and wage inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(518), pages 375-398, 03.
- Leonardi, Marco, 2003. "Firms' Heterogeneity in Capital/Labor Ratios and Wage Inequality," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 136, Royal Economic Society.
- Leonardi, Marco, 2003. "Firm Heterogeneity in Capital/Labor Ratios and Wage Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 909, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- James Harrigan & Ariell Reshef, 2011. "Skill Biased Heterogeneous Firms, Trade Liberalization, and the Skill Premium," NBER Working Papers 17604, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A., 2006.
"Comparative advantage, demand for external finance, and financial development,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3889, The World Bank.
- Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A., 2007. "Comparative advantage, demand for external finance, and financial development," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 796-834, December.
- Jonathan Vogel & Ariel Burstein, 2012. "International trade, technology, and the skill premium," 2012 Meeting Papers 664, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Ernesto Aguayo-Tellez & Jim Airola & Chinhui Juhn, 2010. "Did Trade Liberalization Help Women? The Case of Mexico in the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 16195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Galor, Oded & Weil, David, 1995.
"The Gender Gap, Fertility and Growth,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1157, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hallward-Driemeier, Mary & Aterido, Reyes, 2009. "Comparing Apples with....Apples : how to make (more) sense of subjective rankings of constraints to business," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5054, The World Bank.
- Philip Sauré & Hosny Zoabi, 2009.
"Effects of Trade on Female Labor Force Participation,"
2009-12, Swiss National Bank.
- Hosny Zoabi & Philip Saure, 2010. "Effects of Trade on Female Labor Force Participation," DEGIT Conference Papers c015_015, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
- Almeida, Heitor & Wolfenzon, Daniel, 2005. "The effect of external finance on the equilibrium allocation of capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 133-164, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:2013:i:january:p:89-114:n:v.95no.1. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anna Xiao)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.