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Gender Differences in Executive Compensation and Job Mobility

  • George-Levi Gayle

    (Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University)

  • Limor Golan

    ()

    (Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University)

  • Robert Miller

    (Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University)

Fewer women than men become executive managers. They earn less over their careers, hold more junior positions, and exit the occupation at a faster rate. We compiled a large panel data set on executives and formed a career hierarchy to analyze mobility and compensation rates. We find that, controlling for executive rank and background, women earn higher compensation than men, experience more income uncertainty, and are promoted more quickly. Amongst survivors, being female increases the chance of becoming CEO. Hence, the unconditional gender pay gap and job-rank differences are primarily attributable to female executives exiting at higher rates than men in an occupation where survival is rewarded with promotion and higher compensation.

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File URL: http://humcap.uchicago.edu/RePEc/hka/wpaper/Gayle_Golan_Miller_2011_gender-differences-executive.pdf
File Function: First version, March 2011
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Paper provided by Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group in its series Working Papers with number 2011-013.

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Date of creation: Mar 2011
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Handle: RePEc:hka:wpaper:2011-013
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  1. Pekkarinen, Tuomas & Vartiainen, Juhana, 2004. "Gender Differences in Job Assignment and Promotion on a Complexity Ladder of Jobs," IZA Discussion Papers 1184, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. George-Levi Gayle & Robert A. Miller, 2009. "Insider Information and Performance Pay," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 55(3-4), pages 515-541.
  3. George-Levi Gayle & Robert A. Miller, 2005. "Has Moral Hazard Become a More Important Factor in Managerial Compensation?," GSIA Working Papers 2005-E58, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
  4. Limor Golan & George-Levi Gayle, 2008. "Estimating a Dynamic Adverse-Selection Model: Labor-Force Experience and the Changing Gender Earnings Gap 1968-93," 2008 Meeting Papers 301, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  5. Claudia Olivetti & Stefania Albanesi, 2007. "Gender And Dynamic Agency: Theory And Evidence On The Compensation Of Female Top Executives," 2007 Meeting Papers 894, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  6. Treble, John & van Gameren, Edwin & Bridges, Sarah & Barmby, Tim, 2001. "The internal economics of the firm: further evidence from personnel data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(5), pages 531-552, December.
  7. Baker, George & Gibbs, Michael & Holmstrom, Bengt, 1994. "The Internal Economics of the Firm: Evidence from Personnel Data," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 881-919, November.
  8. Dan A. Black & Amelia M. Haviland & Seth G. Sanders & Lowell J. Taylor, 2008. "Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(3), pages 630-659.
  9. Baker, George & Gibbs, Michael & Holmstrom, Bengt, 1994. "The Wage Policy of a Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 921-55, November.
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