Women-Led Firms and the Gender Gap in Top Executive Jobs
Using data on Executive Compensation from Standard and Poor's ExecuComp, this paper explores the gender gap in top executive jobs and the effect of women CEOs, Chairs, and Directors on the pay of other women executives. The results show a narrowing of the uncorrected gender pay gap from the mid-1990s. Women top executives earn between 8% to 25% less than male executives after controlling for differences in company size, occupational title, and industry. The magnitude of the gender pay gap is statistically related to the gender of the Chief Executive and Corporate Board Chair. Women CEO and Board Chairs bring more top women and at higher pay than is found in non-women-led firms. Specifically, female executives in women-led firms earn between 10-20% more than comparable executive women in male-led firms and are between 3-18% more likely to be among the highest five paid executives in these firms as well. The paper thereby provides strong empirical evidence that women leaders are associated with positive outcomes for women executives in substantive and important ways.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2005|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000.
"Gender Differences in Pay,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
- Susan Athey & Christopher Avery & Peter Zemsky, 1998.
"Mentoring and Diversity,"
NBER Working Papers
6496, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lucian Bebchuk, 2005.
"The Growth of Executive Pay,"
Oxford Review of Economic Policy,
Oxford University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 283-303, Summer.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001.
"The Gender gap in top corporate jobs,"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin Hallock, 1999. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," Working Papers 805, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2000. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," NBER Working Papers 7931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Claudia Goldin, 2013.
"A Pollution Theory of Discrimination: Male and Female Differences in Occupations and Earnings,"
in: Human Capital in History: The American Record, pages 313-348
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Claudia Goldin, 2002. "A Pollution Theory of Discrimination: Male and Female Differences in Occupations and Earnings," NBER Working Papers 8985, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fuchs, Victor R, 1989. "Women's Quest for Economic Equality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 25-41, Winter.
- Lucian Bebchuk & Alma Cohen & Allen Ferrell, 2009. "What Matters in Corporate Governance?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(2), pages 783-827, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1689. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.