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Working for Female Managers: Gender Hierarchy in the Workplace

  • Illong Kwon


  • Eva Meyersson Milgrom


    (Senior Research Scholar, Stanford University)

We study workers’ reactions to changes in the gender composition of top management during a merger or acquisition, finding that an increase in the number of female top managers within their occupation makes male workers more likely to quit, and female workers less likely to quit. These effects vary across occupations, depending on the female share, and male workers’ aversion to female managers is strongest when the female share nears 50 percent. The effects also vary over time and with age, becoming smaller in more recent years and among younger males, but increasing with education level. We find little evidence that these preferences are driven by pecuniary effects.

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Paper provided by Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research in its series Discussion Papers with number 09-006.

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Date of creation: Feb 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:sip:dpaper:09-006
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  1. Thomas S. Dee, 2005. "A Teacher Like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 158-165, May.
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  7. Claudia Goldin, 2013. "A Pollution Theory of Discrimination: Male and Female Differences in Occupations and Earnings," NBER Chapters, in: Human Capital in History: The American Record, pages 313-348 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. David A. Carter & Betty J. Simkins & W. Gary Simpson, 2003. "Corporate Governance, Board Diversity, and Firm Value," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 38(1), pages 33-53, 02.
  9. Pamela S. Tolbert & Tal Simons & Alice Andrews & Jaehoon Rhee, 1995. "The Effects of Gender Composition in Academic Departments on Faculty Turnover," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(3), pages 562-579, April.
  10. Susan Athey & Christopher Avery & Peter Zemsky, 1998. "Mentoring and Diversity," NBER Working Papers 6496, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much?," Discussion Papers 04-030, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  12. Alan E. Dillingham & Marianne A. Ferber & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 1994. "Gender Discrimination by Gender: Voting in a Professional Society," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 47(4), pages 622-633, July.
  13. Illoong Kwon & Eva Meyersson Milgrom, 2007. "Cohort Effects in Wages and Promotions," Discussion Papers 07-025, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  14. Dora L. Costa, 2000. "From Mill Town to Board Room: The Rise of Women's Paid Labor," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 101-122, Fall.
  15. Illoong Kwon & Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom, 2007. "Status, Relative Pay, and Wage Growth: Evidence from M&A," Discussion Papers 07-026, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  16. Baker, George & Gibbs, Michael & Holmstrom, Bengt, 1994. "The Internal Economics of the Firm: Evidence from Personnel Data," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 881-919, November.
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