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Der "Gender Pay Gap" in Führungspositionen der Privatwirtschaft in Deutschland

  • Elke Holst
  • Anne Busch

Obwohl eine Vielzahl an Studien zum geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied und dessen Erklärung existiert, konzentrieren sich bisher nur vergleichsweise wenige auf den "gender pay gap" in Führungspositionen, der im Fokus dieses Beitrags steht. In der hoch selektiven Gruppe der Führungskräfte in der Privatwirtschaft in Deutschland unterscheiden sich die Geschlechter in ihrer Humankapitalausstattung kaum, so dass der über eine Oaxaca/Blinder-Dekomposition ermittelte Unterschied in den Brutto-Monatsverdiensten hierüber nur sehr unzureichend zu erklären ist. Die Einbeziehung von Variablen zur geschlechtsspezifischen Segregation auf dem Arbeitsmarkt sowie haushaltsbezogener Kontrollvariablen führt zunächst dazu, dass der "gender pay gap" zu über zwei Dritteln erklärt werden kann. Das tatsächliche Ausmaß der Nachteile von Frauen am Arbeitsmarkt wird erst unter Berücksichtigung von Selektionseffekten in eine Führungsposition sichtbar: Unter Einbezug von Selektionseffekten (Heckman-Korrektur) können die in den Verdienstschätzungen berücksichtigten Merkmale den "gender pay gap" nur noch zu einem Drittel erklären. Zudem wird deutlich, dass Frauen auch innerhalb der Frauenberufe weniger verdienen als Männer (allokative Diskriminierung). Der zwei Drittel umfassende nicht erklärte Anteil am "gender pay gap" ("Resteffekt") repräsentiert die unbeobachtete Heterogenität. Hierzu gehören zum Beispiel gesellschaftliche und kulturelle Rahmenbedingungen sowie Strukturen und Praktiken auf dem Arbeitsmarkt und in Unternehmen, die zum Nachteil von Frauen wirken und den Aufstieg in eine Führungsposition erschweren.

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Paper provided by DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) in its series SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research with number 169.

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Length: 38 p.
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp169
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  1. Bernd Fitzenberger & Astrid Kunze, 2005. "Vocational Training and Gender: Wages and Occupational Mobility among Young Workers," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(3), pages 392-415, Autumn.
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  8. Elke Holst & Mechthild Schrooten, 2006. "Führungspositionen: Frauen geringer entlohnt und nach wie vor seltener vertreten," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 73(25), pages 365-372.
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  10. Arulampalam, Wiji & Booth, Alison L. & Bryan, Mark L., 2004. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution," IZA Discussion Papers 1373, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Arnaud Chevalier, 2007. "Education, Occupation and Career Expectations: Determinants of the Gender Pay Gap for UK Graduates," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(6), pages 819-842, December.
  12. Elke Holst, 2006. "Women in Managerial Positions in Europe: Focus on Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 557, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  13. Anne Busch & Elke Holst, 2008. "Verdienstdifferenzen zwischen Frauen und Männern nur teilweise durch Strukturmerkmale zu erklären," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 75(15), pages 184-190.
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