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Der "Gender Pay Gap" in Führungspositionen der Privatwirtschaft in Deutschland

Author

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  • Elke Holst
  • Anne Busch

Abstract

Obwohl eine Vielzahl an Studien zum geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied und dessen Erklärung existiert, konzentrieren sich bisher nur vergleichsweise wenige auf den "gender pay gap" in Führungspositionen, der im Fokus dieses Beitrags steht. In der hoch selektiven Gruppe der Führungskräfte in der Privatwirtschaft in Deutschland unterscheiden sich die Geschlechter in ihrer Humankapitalausstattung kaum, so dass der über eine Oaxaca/Blinder-Dekomposition ermittelte Unterschied in den Brutto-Monatsverdiensten hierüber nur sehr unzureichend zu erklären ist. Die Einbeziehung von Variablen zur geschlechtsspezifischen Segregation auf dem Arbeitsmarkt sowie haushaltsbezogener Kontrollvariablen führt zunächst dazu, dass der "gender pay gap" zu über zwei Dritteln erklärt werden kann. Das tatsächliche Ausmaß der Nachteile von Frauen am Arbeitsmarkt wird erst unter Berücksichtigung von Selektionseffekten in eine Führungsposition sichtbar: Unter Einbezug von Selektionseffekten (Heckman-Korrektur) können die in den Verdienstschätzungen berücksichtigten Merkmale den "gender pay gap" nur noch zu einem Drittel erklären. Zudem wird deutlich, dass Frauen auch innerhalb der Frauenberufe weniger verdienen als Männer (allokative Diskriminierung). Der zwei Drittel umfassende nicht erklärte Anteil am "gender pay gap" ("Resteffekt") repräsentiert die unbeobachtete Heterogenität. Hierzu gehören zum Beispiel gesellschaftliche und kulturelle Rahmenbedingungen sowie Strukturen und Praktiken auf dem Arbeitsmarkt und in Unternehmen, die zum Nachteil von Frauen wirken und den Aufstieg in eine Führungsposition erschweren.

Suggested Citation

  • Elke Holst & Anne Busch, 2009. "Der "Gender Pay Gap" in Führungspositionen der Privatwirtschaft in Deutschland," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 169, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp169
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Lutter, Mark, 2012. "Wem wird gegeben? Matthäus-Effekte und geschlechtsspezifische Ungleichheiten auf dem Arbeitsmarkt für Filmschauspieler," MPIfG Discussion Paper 12/8, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    2. Franz, Nele, 2011. "Geschlechtsspezifische Verdienstunterschiede und Diskriminierung am Arbeitsmarkt: Eine Untersuchung unter Berücksichtigung von Voll- und Teilzeitarbeit," CIW Discussion Papers 11/2011, University of Münster, Center for Interdisciplinary Economics (CIW).
    3. Usamah Fayez Al-Farhan, 2010. "Changes in the Gender Wage Gap in Germany during a Period of Rising Wage Inequality 1999-2006: Was it Discrimination in the Returns to Human Capital?," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 293, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    4. Hammermann, Andrea & Mohnen, Alwine, 2012. "Who Benefits from Benefits? Empirical Research on Tangible Incentives," IZA Discussion Papers 6284, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Michael Gühne & Gunther Markwardt, 2014. "Lohnunterschiede zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschland: Neue Einsichten," ifo Dresden berichtet, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 21(03), pages 37-44, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender Pay Gap; managers; segregation; Oaxaca/Blinder decomposition; Heckman correction;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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