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Der "Gender Pay Gap" in Führungspositionen der Privatwirtschaft in Deutschland

  • Elke Holst
  • Anne Busch

Obwohl eine Vielzahl an Studien zum geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied und dessen Erklärung existiert, konzentrieren sich bisher nur vergleichsweise wenige auf den "gender pay gap" in Führungspositionen, der im Fokus dieses Beitrags steht. In der hoch selektiven Gruppe der Führungskräfte in der Privatwirtschaft in Deutschland unterscheiden sich die Geschlechter in ihrer Humankapitalausstattung kaum, so dass der über eine Oaxaca/Blinder-Dekomposition ermittelte Unterschied in den Brutto-Monatsverdiensten hierüber nur sehr unzureichend zu erklären ist. Die Einbeziehung von Variablen zur geschlechtsspezifischen Segregation auf dem Arbeitsmarkt sowie haushaltsbezogener Kontrollvariablen führt zunächst dazu, dass der "gender pay gap" zu über zwei Dritteln erklärt werden kann. Das tatsächliche Ausmaß der Nachteile von Frauen am Arbeitsmarkt wird erst unter Berücksichtigung von Selektionseffekten in eine Führungsposition sichtbar: Unter Einbezug von Selektionseffekten (Heckman-Korrektur) können die in den Verdienstschätzungen berücksichtigten Merkmale den "gender pay gap" nur noch zu einem Drittel erklären. Zudem wird deutlich, dass Frauen auch innerhalb der Frauenberufe weniger verdienen als Männer (allokative Diskriminierung). Der zwei Drittel umfassende nicht erklärte Anteil am "gender pay gap" ("Resteffekt") repräsentiert die unbeobachtete Heterogenität. Hierzu gehören zum Beispiel gesellschaftliche und kulturelle Rahmenbedingungen sowie Strukturen und Praktiken auf dem Arbeitsmarkt und in Unternehmen, die zum Nachteil von Frauen wirken und den Aufstieg in eine Führungsposition erschweren.

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Paper provided by DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) in its series SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research with number 169.

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Length: 38 p.
Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp169
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  1. Arnaud Chevalier, 2007. "Education, Occupation and Career Expectations: Determinants of the Gender Pay Gap for UK Graduates," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(6), pages 819-842, December.
  2. Arulampalam, Wiji & Booth, Alison L. & Bryan, Mark L., 2004. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution," IZA Discussion Papers 1373, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  10. Elke Holst & Anne-Katrin Stahn, 2007. "Spitzenpositionen in großen Unternehmen fest in der Hand von Männern," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 74(7), pages 89-93.
  11. Paula England, 1982. "The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(3), pages 358-370.
  12. Elke Holst & Mechthild Schrooten, 2006. "Führungspositionen: Frauen geringer entlohnt und nach wie vor seltener vertreten," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 73(25), pages 365-372.
  13. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Kunze, Astrid, 2005. "Vocational Training and Gender: Wages and Occupational Mobility among Young Workers," IZA Discussion Papers 1766, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  15. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
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  19. Elke Holst & Anne-Katrin Stahn, 2007. "Zu wenige Frauen in Spitzenpositionen der großen Banken und Versicherungen," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 74(26), pages 405-407.
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  22. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1996. "Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages S29-62, Suppl..
  23. Anne Busch & Elke Holst, 2008. "Verdienstdifferenzen zwischen Frauen und Männern nur teilweise durch Strukturmerkmale zu erklären," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 75(15), pages 184-190.
  24. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  25. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
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  27. Hinz, Thomas & Gartner, Hermann, 2005. "Lohnunterschiede zwischen Frauen und Männern in Branchen, Berufen und Betrieben," IAB Discussion Paper 200504, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  28. Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
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