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Preferred leadership prototypes of male and female leaders in 27 countries


  • Lori D Paris

    (School of Business and Public Administration, California State University, Bakersfield, USA)

  • Jon P Howell

    (College of Business, Department of Management, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, USA)

  • Peter W Dorfman

    (College of Business, Department of Management, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, USA)

  • Paul J Hanges

    (Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, USA)


Our study shows that preferred leadership prototypes held by female leaders differ from the prototypes held by male leaders, and that these prototype differences vary across countries, cultures, and especially industries. In general, female managers prefer participative, team oriented, and charismatic leadership prototype dimensions more than males. Contrary to popular belief, both males and females valued humane-oriented leadership equally. Gender egalitarianism and industry type were important moderators of the gender–leadership prototype relationship. Gender egalitarianism increased females' desire for participative leadership, while prototype differences between genders were magnified in the finance and food industries.

Suggested Citation

  • Lori D Paris & Jon P Howell & Peter W Dorfman & Paul J Hanges, 2009. "Preferred leadership prototypes of male and female leaders in 27 countries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(8), pages 1396-1405, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:40:y:2009:i:8:p:1396-1405

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    Cited by:

    1. Ali Fakih & Pascal Ghazalian, 2015. "Female employment in MENA’s manufacturing sector: the implications of firm-related and national factors," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 37-69, February.
    2. repec:eee:worbus:v:54:y:2019:i:1:p:37-53 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Toh, Soo Min & Leonardelli, Geoffrey J., 2012. "Cultural constraints on the emergence of women as leaders," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 604-611.
    4. Lam, Kevin C.K. & McGuinness, Paul B. & Vieito, João Paulo, 2013. "CEO gender, executive compensation and firm performance in Chinese‐listed enterprises," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1136-1159.

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