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Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?

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  • Assaad, Ragui
  • Krafft, Caroline

Abstract

Egypt has made enormous progress in increasing access to education. While school is theoretically free, families must often spend substantial sums in order for their children to succeed in school. The question that this paper investigates is whether students can succeed in Egypt's basic education system, regardless of their family circumstances, and without additional spending. The paper begins by examining inequality in completing basic education and then investigates the use of supplements, such as private tutoring. Outcomes are examined by socio-economic status, to illustrate how the need to supplement publicly provided basic education contributes to unequal opportunities for young Egyptians.

Suggested Citation

  • Assaad, Ragui & Krafft, Caroline, 2015. "Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 16-30.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:injoed:v:45:y:2015:i:c:p:16-30
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2015.09.001
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    Cited by:

    1. Mongi Boughzala, 2017. "Employment and the Functioning of the Labor Market," Working Papers 1154, Economic Research Forum, revised 11 Sep 2003.
    2. Krafft, Caroline & Elbadawy, Asmaa & Sieverding, Maia, 2019. "Constrained school choice in Egypt," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).
    3. Maia Sieverding & Rania Roushdy & Rasha Hassan & Ahmed Ali, 2019. "Perceptions of Service Access in a Context of Marginalization: The Case of Young People in Informal Greater Cairo," Working Papers 1289, Economic Research Forum, revised 2019.
    4. Amirah El-Haddad, 2016. "Government Intervention with No Structural Transformation: The Challenges of Egyptian Industrial Policy in Comparative Perspective (ARABIC)," Working Papers 1038, Economic Research Forum, revised Aug 2016.
    5. Ahmed Elsayed & Olivier Marie, 2020. "Less School (Costs), More (Female) Education? Lessons from Egypt Reducing Years of Compulsory Schooling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 20-037/V, Tinbergen Institute.
    6. Ragui Assaad & Samir Ghazouani & Caroline Krafft & Dominique J. Rolando, 2016. "Introducing the Tunisia Labor Market Panel Survey 2014," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-21, December.
    7. Assaad, Ragui & Hendy, Rana & Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad, 2019. "Inequality of opportunity in educational attainment in the Middle East and North Africa: Evidence from household surveys," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 24-43.
    8. Krafft, Caroline & Alawode, Halimat, 2018. "Inequality of opportunity in higher education in the Middle East and North Africa," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 234-244.
    9. Acar, Elif Öznur & Günalp, Burak & Cilasun, Seyit Mümin, 2016. "An empirical analysis of household education expenditures in Turkey," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 23-35.
    10. Mahmoud Ali Hailat, 2018. "Education of Jordanians: Outcomes in a Challenging Environment," Working Papers 1221, Economic Research Forum, revised 18 Sep 2018.
    11. Langsten, Ray & Hassan, Tahra, 2018. "Primary education completion in Egypt: Trends and determinants," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 136-145.
    12. Sieverding, Maia & Krafft, Caroline & Elbadawy, Asmaa, 2017. "“The Teacher Does Not Explain in Class”: An Exploration of the Drivers of Private Tutoring in Egypt," GLO Discussion Paper Series 135, Global Labor Organization (GLO).

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