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Incentives to teach badly: After-school tutoring in developing countries

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  • Jayachandran, Seema

Abstract

Schools in developing countries frequently offer for-profit tutoring to their own students. This potentially gives teachers a perverse incentive to teach less during school to increase demand for their tutoring. Through this mechanism, the market for tutoring can adversely affect student learning, especially for students who do not participate in tutoring. I model and present empirical evidence on these effects, using survey and test score data from Nepal. The evidence suggests that when schools offer for-profit tutoring, teachers teach less during the regular school day. As a consequence, performance on the national secondary-school exam appears to suffer among students with a low propensity to enroll in tutoring. An implication is that discouraging teachers from tutoring their own students or reducing entry barriers for third-party tutors could increase student achievement.

Suggested Citation

  • Jayachandran, Seema, 2014. "Incentives to teach badly: After-school tutoring in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 190-205.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:deveco:v:108:y:2014:i:c:p:190-205
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2014.02.008
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Yuan, Cheng & Zhang, Lei, 2015. "Public education spending and private substitution in urban China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 124-139.
    2. Mehtabul Azam, 2016. "Private Tutoring: Evidence from India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 739-761, November.
    3. Jonathan Colmer, 2013. "Climate Variability, Child Labour and Schooling: Evidence on the Intensive and Extensive Margin," GRI Working Papers 132, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
    4. Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul & Rahut, Dil Bahadur & Pallegedara, Asankha, 2019. "Spending privately for education in Nepal. Who spends more on it and why?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 39-47.
    5. Hai-Anh H. Dang & F. Halsey Rogers, 2016. "The Decision to Invest in Child Quality over Quantity: Household Size and Household Investment in Education in Vietnam," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 30(1), pages 104-142.
    6. MacLeod, W. Bentley & Urquiola, Miguel, 2012. "Competition and Educational Productivity: Incentives Writ Large," IZA Discussion Papers 7063, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Shoji, Masahiro & Takafuji, Yoko & Harada, Tetsuya, 2019. "Behavioral Impact of Disaster Education: Evidence from a Dance-Based Program in Indonesia," MPRA Paper 95440, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. M. Twyeafur Rahman & Loe Franssen & Hafiz T. A. Khan, 2020. "The Impact of After-School Programme on Student Achievement: Empirical Evidence from the ASA Education Programme in Bangladesh," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 32(3), pages 612-626, July.
    9. Dang, Hai-Anh H., 2013. "Private tutoring in Vietnam : a review of current issues and its major correlates," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6618, The World Bank.
    10. Chirantan Chatterjee & Eric A. Hanushek & Shreekanth Mahendiran, 2020. "Can Greater Access to Education Be Inequitable? New Evidence from India’s Right to Education Act," NBER Working Papers 27377, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Jishnu Das & Alaka Holla & Aakash Mohpal & Karthik Muralidharan, 2016. "Quality and Accountability in Health Care Delivery: Audit-Study Evidence from Primary Care in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(12), pages 3765-3799, December.
    12. Assaad, Ragui & Krafft, Caroline, 2015. "Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 16-30.
    13. Pallegedara, Asankha & Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul, 2018. "Patterns and determinants of private tutoring: The case of Bangladesh households," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 43-50.
    14. Dang,Hai-Anh H. & King,Elizabeth M. & Dang,Hai-Anh H. & King,Elizabeth M., 2013. "Incentives and teacher effort : further evidence from a developing country," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6694, The World Bank.
    15. Loyalka, Prashant & Zakharov, Andrey, 2016. "Does shadow education help students prepare for college? Evidence from Russia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 22-30.
    16. Hai-Anh H. Dang & Elizabeth M. King, 2016. "Incentives and teacher effort," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 24(4), pages 621-660, October.
    17. Liam J. A. Lenten, 2016. "Mitigation of Perverse Incentives in Professional Sports Leagues with Reverse-Order Drafts," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 49(1), pages 25-41, August.
    18. Somdeep Chatterjee, 2018. "Do Private Tutors Enhance English Language Ability? Regression Discontinuity Evidence From A Policy Experiment In India," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(2), pages 139-149, April.
    19. Sieverding, Maia & Krafft, Caroline & Elbadawy, Asmaa, 2017. "“The Teacher Does Not Explain in Class”: An Exploration of the Drivers of Private Tutoring in Egypt," GLO Discussion Paper Series 135, Global Labor Organization (GLO).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Education; School quality; Teacher incentives; Tutoring;

    JEL classification:

    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • J45 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Public Sector Labor Markets

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