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“The Teacher Does Not Explain in Class”: An Exploration of the Drivers of Private Tutoring in Egypt

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  • Sieverding, Maia
  • Krafft, Caroline
  • Elbadawy, Asmaa

Abstract

Widespread reliance on private tutoring has raised concerns over the hidden costs of Egypt’s “free” education system. This paper examines the drivers of tutoring at different levels of education, using nationally representative survey data as well as qualitative data on youth experiences in public, private, and religious schools. Our findings indicate that the drivers of tutoring are multiple and vary by schooling level. Structured around high-stakes exams, the Egyptian education system has fostered the growth of a diverse tutoring market. In general secondary school, tutoring has become a social expectation that leads teachers and students to shirk in school to devote more attention to tutoring. In basic education, teacher pressure is a major motivation for public school students to take tutoring. In order to reduce the prevalence of tutoring and ensure greater equality in education, there is an urgent need to test mechanisms for ensuring accountability in schools.

Suggested Citation

  • Sieverding, Maia & Krafft, Caroline & Elbadawy, Asmaa, 2017. "“The Teacher Does Not Explain in Class”: An Exploration of the Drivers of Private Tutoring in Egypt," GLO Discussion Paper Series 135, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:135
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    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/170573/1/GLO-DP-0135.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. World Bank, 2008. "The Road Not Traveled : Education Reform in the Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6303, January.
    2. Tansel, AysIt & Bircan, Fatma, 2006. "Demand for education in Turkey: A tobit analysis of private tutoring expenditures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-313, June.
    3. Assaad, Ragui & Krafft, Caroline, 2015. "Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 16-30.
    4. Dang, Hai-Anh H. & King, Elizabeth M., 2013. "Incentives and teacher effort: further evidence from a developing country," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6694, The World Bank.
    5. Glewwe, Paul (ed.), 2013. "Education Policy in Developing Countries," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226078687, February.
    6. Jayachandran, Seema, 2014. "Incentives to teach badly: After-school tutoring in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 190-205.
    7. Dang, Hai-Anh, 2007. "The determinants and impact of private tutoring classes in Vietnam," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 683-698, December.
    8. Bagala P. BISWAL, 1999. "Private Tutoring And Public Corruption: A Cost-Effective Education System For Developing Countries," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 37(2), pages 222-240, June.
    9. Krafft, Caroline & Elbadawy, Asmaa & Sieverding, Maia, 2017. "Constrained School Choice in Egypt," GLO Discussion Paper Series 134, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    10. World Bank, 2007. "Arab Republic of Egypt - Improving Quality, Equality, and Efficiency in the Education Sector : Fostering a Competent Generation of Youth," World Bank Other Operational Studies 19250, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Krafft, Caroline & Alawode, Halimat, 2018. "Inequality of opportunity in higher education in the Middle East and North Africa," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 234-244.
    2. Mahmoud Ali Hailat, 2018. "Education of Jordanians: Outcomes in a Challenging Environment," Working Papers 1221, Economic Research Forum, revised 18 Sep 2018.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Private tutoring; educational supplements; school quality; Egypt;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • N35 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Asia including Middle East

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