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Private Tutoring: Evidence from India

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  • Azam, Mehtabul

    () (Oklahoma State University)

Abstract

Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tutoring is not a new phenomenon in India: a significant proportion of students at each stage of schooling took private tutoring even in 1986-87, and there has been no dramatic increase in those proportions. Students in urban areas and private schools are not only more likely to take private tutoring but also spend more on private tutoring. We also find that demand for private tutoring is inelastic at each stage of schooling, which implies that the private tutoring is a necessary good in the household consumption basket. We also find evidence of pro-male bias in both decisions regarding private tutoring.

Suggested Citation

  • Azam, Mehtabul, 2015. "Private Tutoring: Evidence from India," IZA Discussion Papers 8770, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp8770
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Chirantan Chatterjee & Eric A. Hanushek & Shreekanth Mahendiran, 2020. "Can Greater Access to Education Be Inequitable? New Evidence from India’s Right to Education Act," NBER Working Papers 27377, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Pallegedara, Asankha & Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul, 2018. "Patterns and determinants of private tutoring: The case of Bangladesh households," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 43-50.
    3. Bhorkar, Shalini & Bray, Mark, 2018. "The expansion and roles of private tutoring in India: From supplementation to supplantation," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 148-156.
    4. Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul & Rahut, Dil Bahadur & Pallegedara, Asankha, 2019. "Spending privately for education in Nepal. Who spends more on it and why?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 39-47.
    5. Jain, Tarun & Mukhopadhyay, Abhiroop & Prakash, Nishith & Rakesh, Raghav, 2018. "Labor Market Effects of High School Science Majors in a High STEM Economy," IZA Discussion Papers 11934, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Somdeep Chatterjee, 2018. "Do Private Tutors Enhance English Language Ability? Regression Discontinuity Evidence From A Policy Experiment In India," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(2), pages 139-149, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    India; costs; coaching; private tutoring; Hurdle model;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality

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