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The expansion and roles of private tutoring in India: From supplementation to supplantation


  • Bhorkar, Shalini
  • Bray, Mark


This paper analyses relationships between private supplementary tutoring and mainstream schooling in urban Maharashtra, India. The role of private tutoring progressively expands from the lower to the higher grades, and is especially visible in Classes 11 and 12 when it seems to supplant rather than supplement mainstream schooling. The paper notes the complex interplay of social, economic and educational factors in the shifting relationships, and has relevance not only for other parts of India but also other countries. The dynamics of private tutoring should be considered when conceptualising educational processes and devising policies for schooling, especially in relation to social inequalities and the efficiency of school systems.

Suggested Citation

  • Bhorkar, Shalini & Bray, Mark, 2018. "The expansion and roles of private tutoring in India: From supplementation to supplantation," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 148-156.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:injoed:v:62:y:2018:i:c:p:148-156
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2018.03.003

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Aysit Tansel & Fatma Bircan, 2008. "Private Supplementary Tutoring in Turkey Recent Evidence on Its Various Aspects," Working Papers 451, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2008.
    2. Pallegedara, Asankha & Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul, 2018. "Patterns and determinants of private tutoring: The case of Bangladesh households," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 43-50.
    3. Mehtabul Azam, 2016. "Private Tutoring: Evidence from India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 739-761, November.
    4. Bray, Mark & Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa & Liu, Junyan & Zhang, Wei, 2016. "The internal dynamics of privatised public education: Fee-charging supplementary tutoring provided by teachers in Cambodia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 291-299.
    5. Jheng, Ying-Jie, 2015. "The influence of private tutoring on middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools in Taiwan," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-8.
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    Cited by:

    1. Liu, Junyan & Bray, Mark, 2020. "Private Subtractory Tutoring: The Negative Impact of Shadow Education on Public Schooling in Myanmar," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    2. Yung, Kevin Wai-Ho, 2020. "Comparing the effectiveness of cram school tutors and schoolteachers: A critical analysis of students’ perceptions," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).


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