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The influence of private tutoring on middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools in Taiwan


  • Jheng, Ying-Jie


This study addresses how private tutoring influences middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools. Through interviews with five third-year public senior high school students from middle-class families in Taiwan, the research found that with the help of private tutoring those students were able to use the “time-stealing” strategy to steal time from an ongoing class and create a “double-context learning situation” to optimize the efficiency of the use of their in-class time. This behavior not only undermined teachers’ teaching in formal schools, but also exposed the inadequacy of formal schooling in satisfying students’ need for knowledge.

Suggested Citation

  • Jheng, Ying-Jie, 2015. "The influence of private tutoring on middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools in Taiwan," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-8.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:injoed:v:40:y:2015:i:c:p:1-8
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.11.019

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Tansel, AysIt & Bircan, Fatma, 2006. "Demand for education in Turkey: A tobit analysis of private tutoring expenditures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-313, June.
    2. Aysit Tansel, 2013. "Supplementary Education in Turkey: Recent Developments and Future Prospectss," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1319, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    3. Bray, Mark & Kwok, Percy, 2003. "Demand for private supplementary tutoring: conceptual considerations, and socio-economic patterns in Hong Kong," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 611-620, December.
    4. Roland Cheo & Euston Quah, 2005. "Mothers, Maids and Tutors: An Empirical Evaluation of their Effect on Children's Academic Grades in Singapore," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3), pages 269-285.
    5. Deockhyun Ryu & Changhui Kang, 2013. "Do Private Tutoring Expenditures Raise Academic Performance? Evidence from Middle School Students in South Korea," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 27(1), pages 59-83, March.
    6. Asankha Pallegedara, 2012. "Demand for private tutoring in a free education country. The case of Sri Lanka," International Journal of Education Economics and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(4), pages 375-393.
    7. Eric S. Lin & Yu-lung Lue, 2010. "The Causal Effect of the Cram Schooling Timing Decision on Math Scores," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(3), pages 2330-2345.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bhorkar, Shalini & Bray, Mark, 2018. "The expansion and roles of private tutoring in India: From supplementation to supplantation," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 148-156.
    2. Bray, Mark & Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa & Liu, Junyan & Zhang, Wei, 2016. "The internal dynamics of privatised public education: Fee-charging supplementary tutoring provided by teachers in Cambodia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 291-299.
    3. Liu, Junyan & Bray, Mark, 2020. "Private Subtractory Tutoring: The Negative Impact of Shadow Education on Public Schooling in Myanmar," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    4. Yung, Kevin Wai-Ho, 2020. "Comparing the effectiveness of cram school tutors and schoolteachers: A critical analysis of students’ perceptions," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    5. Suzani Mohamad Samuri & Bahbibi Rahmatullah & Norazilawati Abdullah & Aslina Ahmad & Zainiah Mohamed Isa & Hamsa Hammed, 2018. "Early Childhood Research Landscape on Children’s Profile: Coherent Taxonomy, Motivation, Open Challenges, Recommendations and, Pathways for Future Research," Child Indicators Research, Springer;The International Society of Child Indicators (ISCI), vol. 11(5), pages 1603-1630, October.
    6. Chih-Hao, Chang, 2019. "Effects of Private Tutoring on English Performance: Evidence from Senior High Students in Taiwan," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 80-87.


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