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Does private tutoring improve students’ National College Entrance Exam performance?—A case study from Jinan, China

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  • Zhang, Yu

Abstract

With the increasing attention on improving student achievement, private tutoring has been expanding rapidly worldwide. However, the evidence on the effect of private tutoring is inconclusive for education researchers and policy makers. Employing a comprehensive dataset collected from China in 2010, this study tries to identify the effect of private tutoring on student achievement in the National College Entrance Exam (NCEE) of China. This study finds that private tutoring has mixed and heterogeneous effects on mathematics, Chinese language, and English language respectively and on the NCEE total score. The average effect of private tutoring is not significant, but it may have a significant and positive effect on urban students with lower achievement or in schools with certain quality. Students from schools with more educational inputs are more likely to benefit from private tutoring.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhang, Yu, 2013. "Does private tutoring improve students’ National College Entrance Exam performance?—A case study from Jinan, China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-28.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:32:y:2013:i:c:p:1-28
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.09.008
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Fan Li & Prashant Loyalka & Hongmei Yi & Yaojiang Shi & Natalie Johnson & Scott Rozelle, 2016. "Ability Tracking and Social Capital in China’s Rural Secondary School System," LICOS Discussion Papers 37916, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    2. Dang, Hai-Anh H., 2013. "Private tutoring in Vietnam : a review of current issues and its major correlates," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6618, The World Bank.
    3. Aysit Tansel, 2013. "Supplementary Education in Turkey: Recent Developments and Future Prospectss," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1319, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    4. Hai-Anh H. Dang & F. Halsey Rogers, 2016. "The Decision to Invest in Child Quality over Quantity: Household Size and Household Investment in Education in Vietnam," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 30(1), pages 104-142.
    5. repec:eee:injoed:v:59:y:2018:i:c:p:43-50 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Zhang, Yu & Liu, Junyan, 2016. "The effectiveness of private tutoring in China with a focus on class-size," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 35-42.
    7. repec:eee:ecmode:v:70:y:2018:i:c:p:1-14 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Fan Li & Prashant Loyalka & Hongmei Yi, 2016. "Ability Tracking and Social Capital in China’s Rural Secondary School System," Working Papers id:10972, eSocialSciences.
    9. Bray, Mark & Zhan, Shengli & Lykins, Chad & Wang, Dan & Kwo, Ora, 2014. "Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 24-37.
    10. Gabriel Heller Sahlgren, 2014. "Handing Over the School Keys: The Impact of Privatisation on Education Quality," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 196-210, June.
    11. Han, Yoonsun & Lee, Seonglim, 2016. "Heterogeneous relationships between family private education spending and youth academic performance in Korea," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 136-142.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Private tutoring effect; Academic achievement; National College Entrance Exam;

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy

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