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How to interpret the growing phenomenon of private tutoring : human capital deepening, inequality increasing, or waste of resources ?

  • Dang, Hai-Anh
  • Rogers, F. Halsey

Private tutoring is now a major component of the education sector in many developing countries, yet education policy too seldom acknowledges and makes use of it. Various criticisms have been raised against private tutoring, most notably that it exacerbates social inequalities and may even fail to improve student outcomes. This paper surveys the literature for evidence on private tutoring-the extent of the tutoring phenomenon, the factors that explain its growth, and its cost-effectiveness in improving student academic performance. It also presents a framework for assessing the efficiency and equity effects of tutoring. It concludes that tutoring can raise the effectiveness of the education system under certain reasonable assumptions, even taking into account equity concerns, and it offers guidance for attacking corruption and other problems that diminish the contributions of the tutoring sector.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4530.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2008
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4530
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