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After-school tutoring in the context of no Child Left Behind: Effectiveness of two programs in the Pittsburgh Public Schools


  • Zimmer, Ron
  • Hamilton, Laura
  • Christina, Rachel


The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation has created pressure for districts to improve their students' proficiency levels on state tests. Districts that fail to meet their academic targets for 3 years must use their Title I funds to pay for supplemental education services (SES) that provide tutoring or other academic instruction. Many districts, including the Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS), have also adopted additional tutoring programs designed to help students reach proficiency goals. This paper examines student participation and achievement in two PPS tutoring programs--the NCLB-mandated SES program and a state-developed tutoring program. We examine the characteristics of students participating in each program, the effects of participation on student achievement, and the program features that are associated with improved achievement.

Suggested Citation

  • Zimmer, Ron & Hamilton, Laura & Christina, Rachel, 2010. "After-school tutoring in the context of no Child Left Behind: Effectiveness of two programs in the Pittsburgh Public Schools," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 18-28, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:29:y:2010:i:1:p:18-28

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hanushek, Eric A. & Kain, John F. & Rivkin, Steven G. & Branch, Gregory F., 2007. "Charter school quality and parental decision making with school choice," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(5-6), pages 823-848, June.
    2. Zimmer, Ron & Buddin, Richard, 2006. "Charter school performance in two large urban districts," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 307-326, September.
    3. Tim R. Sass, 2006. "Charter Schools and Student Achievement in Florida," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 1(1), pages 91-122, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cid, Alejandro, 2012. "Giving a Second Chance: an After-School Program in a Shanty Town Matched against Parent Type," MPRA Paper 39918, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Meyer, Erik & Van Klaveren, Chris, 2013. "The effectiveness of extended day programs: Evidence from a randomized field experiment in the Netherlands," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 1-11.
    3. Hai-Anh H. Dang & F. Halsey Rogers, 2016. "The Decision to Invest in Child Quality over Quantity: Household Size and Household Investment in Education in Vietnam," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 30(1), pages 104-142.
    4. Elena Claudia Meroni & Giovanni Abbiati, 2014. "Gender differences in exposure to more instruction time. Evidence from Italy," Working Papers 064, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
    5. Bray, Mark & Zhan, Shengli & Lykins, Chad & Wang, Dan & Kwo, Ora, 2014. "Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 24-37.
    6. repec:eee:epplan:v:64:y:2017:i:c:p:7-19 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee, 2016. "Improving academic performance through conditional benefits: Open/closed campus policies in high school and student outcomes," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 95-112.
    8. Zhang, Yu, 2013. "Does private tutoring improve students’ National College Entrance Exam performance?—A case study from Jinan, China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-28.
    9. Dörsam, Michael & Lauber, Verena, 2015. "The Effect of a Compressed High School Curriculum on University Grades: DiD-Evidence From a German Policy Shift," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112876, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. Battistin, Erich & Meroni, Elena Claudia, 2016. "Should we increase instruction time in low achieving schools? Evidence from Southern Italy," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 39-56.
    11. Marianne Bernatzky & Alejandro Cid, 2014. "Hope and commitment. Lessons from a randomize control trial in a shanty town," Documentos de Trabajo/Working Papers 1404, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Economia. Universidad de Montevideo..
    12. Loyalka, Prashant & Zakharov, Andrey, 2016. "Does shadow education help students prepare for college? Evidence from Russia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 22-30.
    13. Alejandro Cid & Martin Rossi, 2011. "Giving a Second Chance: an After-School Program in a Shantytown Interacting with Parents’ Type," Documentos de Trabajo/Working Papers 1108, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Economia. Universidad de Montevideo..


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