After-school tutoring in the context of no Child Left Behind: Effectiveness of two programs in the Pittsburgh Public Schools
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation has created pressure for districts to improve their students' proficiency levels on state tests. Districts that fail to meet their academic targets for 3 years must use their Title I funds to pay for supplemental education services (SES) that provide tutoring or other academic instruction. Many districts, including the Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS), have also adopted additional tutoring programs designed to help students reach proficiency goals. This paper examines student participation and achievement in two PPS tutoring programs--the NCLB-mandated SES program and a state-developed tutoring program. We examine the characteristics of students participating in each program, the effects of participation on student achievement, and the program features that are associated with improved achievement.
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- Zimmer, Ron & Buddin, Richard, 2006. "Charter school performance in two large urban districts," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 307-326, September.
- Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin & Gregory F. Branch, 2005.
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- Hanushek, Eric A. & Kain, John F. & Rivkin, Steven G. & Branch, Gregory F., 2007. "Charter school quality and parental decision making with school choice," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(5-6), pages 823-848, June.
- Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin & Gregory F. Branch, 2005. "Charter School Quality and Parental Decision Making with School Choice," Discussion Papers 04-024, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Tim R. Sass, 2006. "Charter Schools and Student Achievement in Florida," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 1(1), pages 91-122, January.
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