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Effects of After-School Education Vouchers on Children's Academic and Behavioral Outcomes: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

Author

Listed:
  • Hideo Akabayashi

    (faculty of economics, keio university)

  • Hiroko Araki

    (Faculty of Economics, Kindai University)

  • Ryuichi Tanaka

    (Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo)

Abstract

We estimated the causal impact of vouchers for after-school education programs on children's academic and behavioral outcomes using experimental data of middle and high school students. Our identification strategy relied on the random assignment of after-school education vouchers provided to children who suffered as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake. We estimated the value-added models of various outcomes such as academic test scores (mathematics and Japanese language art) and non-cognitive skill measures (self-esteem and quality of life) of the children. We carefully treated potential biases due to sample attrition and the small sample property by employing the inverse probability weight for regression analyses. Our estimation results revealed that the assignment of vouchers had a positive and significant effect on the increase of mathematics test scores of high school students immediately, and of language art test scores of middle and high school students in one year. These results were robust to the fully non-parametric permutation tests. We found that the assignment of after-school education vouchers negatively affected the self-esteem scores of middle school students immediately, but this relationship became weak and insignificant in one year. We found that the assignment of vouchers was positively related to the quality of life measure, but these relationships were insignificant. We also estimated the effect of vouchers on the children's study time, finding that the assignment of vouchers had a positive and statistically significant effect on study time, mainly at home. However, these positive effects were insignificant in the fully nonparametric permutation tests. This indicates that the assignment of vouchers improved the quality of the study environment of the children without increasing their study time, thus resulting in better academic outcomes.

Suggested Citation

  • Hideo Akabayashi & Hiroko Araki & Ryuichi Tanaka, 2018. "Effects of After-School Education Vouchers on Children's Academic and Behavioral Outcomes: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," Keio-IES Discussion Paper Series 2018-020, Institute for Economics Studies, Keio University.
  • Handle: RePEc:keo:dpaper:2018-020
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    File URL: http://ies.keio.ac.jp/upload/pdf/en/DP2018-020.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Zhang, Yu, 2013. "Does private tutoring improve students’ National College Entrance Exam performance?—A case study from Jinan, China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-28.
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    3. Zimmer, Ron & Hamilton, Laura & Christina, Rachel, 2010. "After-school tutoring in the context of no Child Left Behind: Effectiveness of two programs in the Pittsburgh Public Schools," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 18-28, February.
    4. Bray, Mark & Zhan, Shengli & Lykins, Chad & Wang, Dan & Kwo, Ora, 2014. "Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 24-37.
    5. Dang, Hai-Anh, 2007. "The determinants and impact of private tutoring classes in Vietnam," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 683-698, December.
    6. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588, December.
    7. Hai-Anh Dang & F. Halsey Rogers, 2008. "The Growing Phenomenon of Private Tutoring: Does It Deepen Human Capital, Widen Inequalities, or Waste Resources?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 23(2), pages 161-200, April.
    8. Bray, Mark & Kwok, Percy, 2003. "Demand for private supplementary tutoring: conceptual considerations, and socio-economic patterns in Hong Kong," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 611-620, December.
    9. Victor Lavy & Analia Schlosser, 2005. "Targeted Remedial Education for Underperforming Teenagers: Costs and Benefits," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(4), pages 839-874, October.
    10. Akabayashi, Hideo & Araki, Hiroko, 2011. "Do education vouchers prevent dropout at private high schools? Evidence from Japanese policy changes," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 183-198, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Shintaro Yamaguchi & Hirotake Ito & Makiko Nakamuro, 2020. "Month-of-Birth Effects on Skills and Skill Formation," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 2015, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    2. Shintaro Yamaguchi & Hirotake Ito & Makiko Nakamuro, 2020. "Month-of-Birth Effects on Skills and Skill Formation," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-1153, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Educational Voucher; Causality; Randomized Control Traial; Shadow Education; the Great East Japan Earthquake;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid

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