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Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education


  • Bray, Mark
  • Zhan, Shengli
  • Lykins, Chad
  • Wang, Dan
  • Kwo, Ora


A growing number of students around the world receive private tutoring in academic subjects. Such tutoring is widely called shadow education because it mimics regular schooling as the school sector grows, so does the shadow; and as the curriculum in the school changes, so does the curriculum in the shadow. Private tutoring has long been a significant phenomenon in East Asia, but has not received adequate research attention.

Suggested Citation

  • Bray, Mark & Zhan, Shengli & Lykins, Chad & Wang, Dan & Kwo, Ora, 2014. "Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 24-37.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:38:y:2014:i:c:p:24-37
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2013.10.002

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    12. Sunwoong Kim & Ju-Ho Lee, 2010. "Private Tutoring and Demand for Education in South Korea," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(2), pages 259-296, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hsiao-Lei Chu, 2015. "Private Tutoring, Wealth Constraint and Higher Education," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 608-634, October.
    2. Guill, Karin & Lintorf, Katrin, 2019. "Private tutoring when stakes are high: Insights from the transition from primary to secondary school in Germany," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 172-182.
    3. Assaad, Ragui & Krafft, Caroline, 2015. "Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 16-30.
    4. Rajapaksa, Darshana & Gono, Marcel & Wilson, Clevo & Managi, Shunsuke & Lee, Boon & Hoang, Viet-Ngu, 2020. "The demand for education: The impacts of good schools on property values in Brisbane, Australia," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C).
    5. Mehtabul Azam, 2016. "Private Tutoring: Evidence from India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 739-761, November.
    6. Hideo Akabayashi & Hiroko Araki & Ryuichi Tanaka, 2018. "Effects of After-School Education Vouchers on Children's Academic and Behavioral Outcomes: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," Keio-IES Discussion Paper Series 2018-020, Institute for Economics Studies, Keio University.
    7. Zhang, Yu & Liu, Junyan, 2016. "The effectiveness of private tutoring in China with a focus on class-size," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 35-42.
    8. Sun, Lunxuan & Shafiq, M. Najeeb & McClure, Maureen & Guo, Sisi, 2020. "Are there educational and psychological benefits from private supplementary tutoring in Mainland China? Evidence from the China Education Panel Survey, 2013–15," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    9. Ille, Sebastian & Peacey, Mike W., 2019. "Forced private tutoring in Egypt: Moving away from a corrupt social norm," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 105-118.
    10. Simon Fan & Yu Pang & Pierre Pestieau, 2020. "Nature versus Nurture in Social Mobility under Private and Public Education Systems," CESifo Working Paper Series 8472, CESifo.
    11. Somdeep Chatterjee, 2018. "Do Private Tutors Enhance English Language Ability? Regression Discontinuity Evidence From A Policy Experiment In India," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(2), pages 139-149, April.

    More about this item


    Private tutoring; Shadow education; Costs; Demand for schooling; Privatization;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality


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