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Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education

Author

Listed:
  • Bray, Mark
  • Zhan, Shengli
  • Lykins, Chad
  • Wang, Dan
  • Kwo, Ora

Abstract

A growing number of students around the world receive private tutoring in academic subjects. Such tutoring is widely called shadow education because it mimics regular schooling as the school sector grows, so does the shadow; and as the curriculum in the school changes, so does the curriculum in the shadow. Private tutoring has long been a significant phenomenon in East Asia, but has not received adequate research attention.

Suggested Citation

  • Bray, Mark & Zhan, Shengli & Lykins, Chad & Wang, Dan & Kwo, Ora, 2014. "Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 24-37.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:38:y:2014:i:c:p:24-37
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2013.10.002
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Zhang, Yu & Liu, Junyan, 2016. "The effectiveness of private tutoring in China with a focus on class-size," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 35-42.
    2. Assaad, Ragui & Krafft, Caroline, 2015. "Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 16-30.
    3. Mehtabul Azam, 2016. "Private Tutoring: Evidence from India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 739-761, November.
    4. Hsiao-Lei Chu, 2015. "Private Tutoring, Wealth Constraint and Higher Education," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 608-634, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Private tutoring; Shadow education; Costs; Demand for schooling; Privatization;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality

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