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Demand for private tutoring in a free education country. The case of Sri Lanka

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  • Asankha Pallegedara

Abstract

Private tutoring is a growing phenomenon among Sri Lankan students. We examine the demand for private tutoring in Sri Lanka using two rounds of nationwide household surveys. We find that the demand for private tutoring in Sri Lanka has increased over time. Moreover, results reveal that private tutoring expenditure has changed from a luxury good in 1995-1996 to a necessity good in 2006-2007. We believe that increased demand for private tutoring is mainly driven by intense social competition to enrol in popular secondary schools and universities coupled with the increased income of parents owing to the expansion of the middle classes to engage in this competition.

Suggested Citation

  • Asankha Pallegedara, 2012. "Demand for private tutoring in a free education country. The case of Sri Lanka," International Journal of Education Economics and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(4), pages 375-393.
  • Handle: RePEc:ids:ijeded:v:3:y:2012:i:4:p:375-393
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    1. Tansel, AysIt & Bircan, Fatma, 2006. "Demand for education in Turkey: A tobit analysis of private tutoring expenditures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-313, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kumara, Ajantha Sisira, 2015. "Wage Differentials in Sri Lanka: The case of a post-conflict country with a free education policy," MPRA Paper 68068, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Nov 2015.
    2. Chung, Keunsuk & Lee, Dongryul, 2017. "Inefficient competition in shadow-education investment," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 152-165.
    3. Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul & Rahut, Dil Bahadur & Pallegedara, Asankha, 2019. "Spending privately for education in Nepal. Who spends more on it and why?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 39-47.
    4. Pallegedara, Asankha & Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul, 2018. "Patterns and determinants of private tutoring: The case of Bangladesh households," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 43-50.
    5. Bray, Mark & Zhan, Shengli & Lykins, Chad & Wang, Dan & Kwo, Ora, 2014. "Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in Hong Kong secondary education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 24-37.
    6. Jheng, Ying-Jie, 2015. "The influence of private tutoring on middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools in Taiwan," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-8.
    7. Abayasekara, Ashani & Arunatilake, Nisha, 2018. "School-level resource allocation and education outcomes in Sri Lanka," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 127-141.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    public education; private tutoring; educational policy; free education; education for all; Sri Lanka; tutors; household surveys; tutoring expenditure; luxury goods; necessity goods; social competition; secondary schools; higher education; universities; parental income; parents; middle classes; education economics; educational development.;

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior

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