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Patterns and determinants of private tutoring: The case of Bangladesh households


  • Pallegedara, Asankha
  • Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul


This study analyses the decision to take private tutoring and the associated tutoring expenses by the households in Bangladesh, using information collected from more than 13,500 households by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Employing the double-hurdle model estimation procedure, this study econometrically demonstrates that the likelihood of purchasing private tutoring has been increasing over the years. Urban households are more likely to purchase private tutoring services for their children than the rural households, which can widen the socio-economic inequalities. Policy recommendations are drawn based on the findings.

Suggested Citation

  • Pallegedara, Asankha & Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul, 2018. "Patterns and determinants of private tutoring: The case of Bangladesh households," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 43-50.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:injoed:v:59:y:2018:i:c:p:43-50
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.10.004

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Zhang, Yu, 2013. "Does private tutoring improve students’ National College Entrance Exam performance?—A case study from Jinan, China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-28.
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    7. Sunwoong Kim & Ju-Ho Lee, 2010. "Private Tutoring and Demand for Education in South Korea," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(2), pages 259-296, January.
    8. Jayachandran, Seema, 2014. "Incentives to teach badly: After-school tutoring in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 190-205.
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    11. Zhang, Yu & Liu, Junyan, 2016. "The effectiveness of private tutoring in China with a focus on class-size," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 35-42.
    12. Dang, Hai-Anh, 2007. "The determinants and impact of private tutoring classes in Vietnam," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 683-698, December.
    13. Asankha Pallegedara, 2012. "Demand for private tutoring in a free education country. The case of Sri Lanka," International Journal of Education Economics and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(4), pages 375-393.
    14. William J. Burke, 2009. "Fitting and interpreting Cragg's tobit alternative using Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(4), pages 584-592, December.
    15. P G Moffatt, 2005. "Hurdle models of loan default," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 56(9), pages 1063-1071, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bhorkar, Shalini & Bray, Mark, 2018. "The expansion and roles of private tutoring in India: From supplementation to supplantation," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 148-156.
    2. Liu, Junyan & Bray, Mark, 2020. "Private Subtractory Tutoring: The Negative Impact of Shadow Education on Public Schooling in Myanmar," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    3. Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul & Rahut, Dil Bahadur & Pallegedara, Asankha, 2019. "Spending privately for education in Nepal. Who spends more on it and why?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 39-47.
    4. David Ansong & Gina Chowa & Rainier Masa & Mathieu Despard & Michael Sherraden & Shiyou Wu & Isaac Osei-Akoto, 2019. "Effects of Youth Savings Accounts on School Attendance and Academic Performance: Evidence from a Youth Savings Experiment," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 269-281, June.

    More about this item


    Private tutoring; Socio-economic inequality; Education; Households; Bangladesh;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality


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