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Private Subtractory Tutoring: The Negative Impact of Shadow Education on Public Schooling in Myanmar


  • Liu, Junyan
  • Bray, Mark


An expanding literature focuses on the so-called shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring, and contributes to understandings of the nexus between in-school and out-of-school learning. This paper, contextualised in broader literature, draws on questionnaire and interview data from students, teachers, principals, parents and other stakeholders in Myanmar, and observes that shadow education may subtract as well as supplement. For some decades, public education in Myanmar has suffered from financial stringency, large classes, and overloaded curriculum. Students and their families have sought private tutoring, particularly from public school teachers, to supplement school education; and teachers and other providers have welcomed the revenue that they can earn. As a result, private tutoring has become embedded in the lives of many students and teachers, and has consumed time and energy supposed to be spent on school education. However, the private tutoring has also helped to keep the school system running.

Suggested Citation

  • Liu, Junyan & Bray, Mark, 2020. "Private Subtractory Tutoring: The Negative Impact of Shadow Education on Public Schooling in Myanmar," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:injoed:v:76:y:2020:i:c:s0738059320303722
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2020.102213

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Yung, Kevin Wai-Ho, 2020. "Comparing the effectiveness of cram school tutors and schoolteachers: A critical analysis of students’ perceptions," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    2. Berberoglu, Giray & Tansel, Aysit, 2014. "Does private tutoring increase students’ academic performance? Evidence from Turkey," MPRA Paper 57370, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Stefanie Hof, 2014. "Does Private Tutoring Work? The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0096, University of Zurich, Department of Business Administration (IBW).
    4. Hai-Anh Dang & F. Halsey Rogers, 2008. "The Growing Phenomenon of Private Tutoring: Does It Deepen Human Capital, Widen Inequalities, or Waste Resources?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 23(2), pages 161-200, April.
    5. Bhorkar, Shalini & Bray, Mark, 2018. "The expansion and roles of private tutoring in India: From supplementation to supplantation," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 148-156.
    6. Pallegedara, Asankha & Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul, 2018. "Patterns and determinants of private tutoring: The case of Bangladesh households," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 43-50.
    7. World Bank, 2015. "Realigning the Union Budget to Myanmar’s Development Priorities," World Bank Other Operational Studies 24068, The World Bank.
    8. Jayachandran, Seema, 2014. "Incentives to teach badly: After-school tutoring in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 190-205.
    9. Bray, Mark & Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa & Liu, Junyan & Zhang, Wei, 2016. "The internal dynamics of privatised public education: Fee-charging supplementary tutoring provided by teachers in Cambodia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 291-299.
    10. Jheng, Ying-Jie, 2015. "The influence of private tutoring on middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools in Taiwan," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-8.
    11. Stefanie Hof, 2014. "Does private tutoring work? The effectiveness of private tutoring: a nonparametric bounds analysis," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 347-366, August.
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